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Kinh Trung Bộ (Majjhima Nikāya) »» 97. Kinh Dhānañjāni

Dhānanjāni sutta

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Dịch giả: Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli & Bhikkhu Bodhi

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1. THUS HAVE I HEARD. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.

2. Now on that occasion the venerable Sāriputta was wandering in the Southern Hills with a large Sangha of bhikkhus. Then a certain [185] bhikkhu who had spent the Rains at Rājagaha went to the venerable Sāriputta in the Southern Hills and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and the venerable Sāriputta asked him:

“Is the Blessed One well and strong, friend?”

“The Blessed One is well and strong, friend.”

“Is the Sangha of bhikkhus well and strong, friend?”

“The Sangha of bhikkhus too is well and strong, friend.”

“Friend, there is a brahmin named Dhānañjāni living at the Taṇḍulapāla Gate. Is that brahmin Dhānañjāni well and strong?”

“That brahmin Dhānañjāni too is well and strong, friend.”

“Is he diligent, friend?”

“How could he be diligent, friend? He plunders brahmin householders in the name of the king, and he plunders the king in the name of the brahmin householders. His wife, who had faith and came from a clan with faith, has died and he has taken another wife, a woman without faith who comes from a clan without faith.”

“This is bad news that we hear, friend. It is bad news indeed to hear that the brahmin Dhānañjāni has become negligent. Perhaps sometime or other we might meet the brahmin Dhānañjāni and have some conversation with him.”

3. Then, having stayed in the Southern Hills as long as he chose, the venerable Sāriputta set out to wander towards Rājagaha. Wandering by stages he eventually arrived at Rājagaha, and there he lived in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.

4. Then, when it was morning, the venerable Sāriputta dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Rājagaha for alms. [186] Now at that time the brahmin Dhānañjāni was having his cows milked in a cowshed outside the city. So when the venerable Sāriputta had wandered for alms in Rājagaha and had returned from his almsround, after his meal he went to the brahmin Dhānañjāni. The brahmin Dhānañjāni saw the venerable Sāriputta coming in the distance, and he went to him and said:

“Drink some of this fresh milk, Master Sāriputta, until it is time for the meal.”

“Enough, brahmin, I have finished my meal for today. I shall be at the root of that tree for the day’s abiding. You may come there.”

“Yes, sir,” he replied.

5. And then, after he had eaten his morning meal, the brahmin Dhānañjāni went to the venerable Sāriputta and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and the venerable Sāriputta asked him:

“Are you diligent, Dhānañjāni?”

“How can we be diligent, Master Sāriputta, when we have to support our parents, our wife and children, and our slaves, servants, and workers; when we have to do our duty towards our friends and companions, towards our kinsmen and relatives, towards our guests, towards our departed ancestors, towards the deities, and towards the king; and when this body must also be refreshed and nourished?”

6. “What do you think, Dhānañjāni? Suppose someone here were to behave contrary to the Dhamma, to behave unrighteously for the sake of his parents, and then because of such behaviour the wardens of hell were to drag him off to hell. Would he be able [to free himself by pleading thus]: ‘It was for the sake of my parents that I behaved contrary to the Dhamma, that I behaved unrighteously, so let not the wardens of hell [drag me off] to hell’? [187]

Or would his parents be able [to free him by pleading thus]: ‘It was for our sake that he behaved contrary to the Dhamma, that he behaved unrighteously, so let not the wardens of hell [drag him off] to hell’?”

“No, Master Sāriputta. Even while he was crying out, the wardens of hell would fling him into hell.”

7–15. “What do you think, Dhānañjāni? Suppose someone here were to behave contrary to the Dhamma, to behave unrighteously for the sake of his wife and children…





for the sake of his slaves, servants, and workers…



for the sake of his friends and companions…

for the sake of his kinsmen and relatives…

for the sake of his guests… [188]

for the sake of his departed ancestors…

for the sake of the deities…

for the sake of the king…

for the sake of refreshing and nourishing this body, and because of such behaviour the wardens of hell were to drag him off to hell. Would he be able [to free himself by pleading thus]: ‘It was for the sake of refreshing and nourishing this body that I behaved contrary to the Dhamma, that I behaved unrighteously, so let not the wardens of hell [drag me off] to hell’?

Or would others be able [to free him by pleading thus]: ‘It was for the sake of refreshing and nourishing this body that he behaved contrary to the Dhamma, that he behaved unrighteously, so let not the wardens of hell [drag him off] to hell’?”

“No, Master Sāriputta. Even while he was crying out, the wardens of hell would fling him into hell.”

16. “What do you think, Dhānañjāni? Who is the better, one who for the sake of his parents behaves contrary to the Dhamma, behaves unrighteously, or one who for the sake of his parents behaves according to the Dhamma, behaves righteously?”

“Master Sāriputta, the one who for the sake of his parents behaves contrary to the Dhamma, behaves unrighteously, is not the better; the one who for the sake of his parents behaves according to the Dhamma, behaves righteously, is the better. Behavior in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous behavior, is better than behavior contrary to the Dhamma, unrighteous behavior.”

“Dhānañjāni, there are other kinds of work, profitable and in accordance with the Dhamma, by means of which one can support one’s parents and at the same time both avoid doing evil and practise merit. 17–25.

“What do you think, Dhānañjāni? Who is the better, one who for the sake of his wife and children… [189]…





for the sake of his slaves, servants, and workers…





for the sake of his friends and companions… [190]…





for the sake of his kinsmen and relatives…





for the sake of his guests…





for the sake of his departed ancestors…





for the sake of the deities…





[191]… for the sake of the king…





for the sake of refreshing and nourishing this body behaves contrary to the Dhamma, behaves unrighteously, or one who for the sake of refreshing and nourishing this body behaves according to the Dhamma, behaves righteously?”

“Master Sāriputta, the one who for the sake of refreshing and nourishing this body behaves contrary to the Dhamma, behaves unrighteously, is not the better; the one who for the sake of refreshing and nourishing this body behaves according to the Dhamma, behaves righteously, is the better. Behavior in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous behavior, is better than behavior contrary to the Dhamma, unrighteous behavior.”

“Dhānañjāni, there are other kinds of work, profitable and in accordance with the Dhamma, by means of which one can refresh and nourish this body and at the same time both avoid doing evil and practise merit.”

26. Then the brahmin Dhānañjāni, having delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sāriputta’s words, rose from his seat and departed.

27. On a later occasion the brahmin Dhānañjāni became afflicted, suffering, and gravely ill. Then he told a man:

“Come, good man, [192] go to the Blessed One, pay homage in my name with your head at his feet, and say: ‘Venerable sir, the brahmin Dhānañjāni is afflicted, suffering, and gravely ill; he pays homage with his head at the Blessed One’s feet.’

Then go to the venerable Sāriputta, pay homage in my name with your head at his feet, and say: ‘Venerable sir, the brahmin Dhānañjāni is afflicted, suffering, and gravely ill; he pays homage with his head at the venerable Sāriputta’s feet.’ Then say thus: ‘It would be good, venerable sir, if the venerable Sāriputta would come to the house of the brahmin Dhānañjāni, out of compassion.’”

“Yes, venerable sir,” the man replied, and he went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to the Blessed One, he sat down at one side and delivered his message.

Then he went to the venerable Sāriputta and after paying homage to the venerable Sāriputta, he delivered his message, saying:

“It would be good, venerable sir, if the venerable Sāriputta would come to the residence of the brahmin Dhānañjāni, out of compassion.” The venerable Sāriputta consented in silence.

28. Then the venerable Sāriputta dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, he went to the residence of the brahmin Dhānañjāni, sat down on a seat made ready, and said to the brahmin Dhānañjāni:

“I hope you are getting well, brahmin, I hope you are comfortable. I hope your painful feelings are subsiding and not increasing, and that their subsiding, not their increase, is apparent.”

29. “Master Sāriputta, I am not getting well, I am not comfortable. My painful feelings are increasing, not subsiding; their increase and not their subsiding is apparent.

Just as if [193] a strong man were splitting my head open with a sharp sword, so too, violent winds cut through my head. I am not getting well…

Just as if a strong man were tightening a tough leather strap around my head as a headband, so too, there are violent pains in my head. I am not getting well…

Just as if a skilled butcher or his apprentice were to carve up an ox’s belly with a sharp butcher’s knife, so too, violent winds are carving up my belly. I am not getting well…

Just as if two strong men were to seize a weaker man by both arms and roast him over a pit of hot coals, so too, there is a violent burning in my body. I am not getting well, I am not comfortable. My painful feelings are increasing, not subsiding; their increase and not their subsiding is apparent.”

30. “What do you think, Dhānañjāni? Which is better — hell or the animal realm?”

— “The animal realm, Master Sāriputta.”

— “Which is better — the animal realm or the realm of ghosts?”

— “The realm of ghosts, Master Sāriputta.”

— “Which is better — the realm of ghosts or the realm of human beings?”

— “Human beings, Master Sāriputta.” [194] “Which is better .

— Human beings or the gods of the heaven of the Four Great Kings?”

— “The gods of the heaven of the Four Great Kings, Master Sāriputta.”

— “Which is better — the gods of the heaven of the Four Great Kings or the gods of the heaven of the Thirty-three?”

— “The gods of the heaven of the Thirty-three, Master Sāriputta.”

— “Which is better — the gods of the heaven of the Thirty-three or the Yāma gods?”

— “The Yāma gods, Master Sāriputta.”

— “Which is better — the Yāma gods or the gods of the Tusita heaven?”

— “The gods of the Tusita heaven, Master Sāriputta.”

— “Which is better — the gods of the Tusita heaven or the gods who delight in creating?”

— “The gods who delight in creating, Master Sāriputta.”

— “Which is better — the gods who delight in creating or the gods who wield power over others’ creations?”

— “The gods who wield power over others’ creations, Master Sāriputta.”

31. “What do you think, Dhānañjāni? Which is better — the gods who wield power over others’ creations or the Brahma-world?”

— “Master Sāriputta said ‘the Brahma-world.’ Master Sāriputta said ‘the Brahma-world.’”

Then the venerable Sāriputta thought: “These brahmins are devoted to the Brahma-world. Suppose I teach the brahmin Dhānañjāni the path to the company of Brahmā?” [And he said:]

“Dhānañjāni, I shall teach you the path to the company of Brahmā. Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”

— “Yes, sir,” he replied. [195] The venerable Sāriputta said this:

32. “What is the path to the company of Brahmā? Here, Dhānañjāni, a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. This is the path to the company of Brahmā.

33–35. “Again, Dhānañjāni, a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion… with a mind imbued with altruistic joy… with a mind imbued with equanimity, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with equanimity, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. This too is the path to the company of Brahmā.”

36. “Then, Master Sāriputta, pay homage in my name with your head at the Blessed One’s feet, and say: ‘Venerable sir, the brahmin Dhānañjāni is afflicted, suffering, and gravely ill; he pays homage with his head at the Blessed One’s feet.’”

Then the venerable Sāriputta, having established the brahmin Dhānañjāni in the inferior Brahma-world, rose from his seat and departed while there was still more to be done.898 Soon after the venerable Sāriputta had left, the brahmin Dhānañjāni died and reappeared in the Brahma-world.

37. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus:

“Bhikkhus, Sāriputta, having established the brahmin Dhānañjāni in the inferior Brahma-world, rose from his seat and departed while there was still more to be done.”

38. Then the venerable Sāriputta went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and said:

“Venerable sir, the brahmin Dhānañjāni is afflicted, suffering, and gravely ill; he pays homage with his head at the Blessed One’s feet.”

“Sāriputta, having established the brahmin Dhānañjāni [196] in the inferior Brahma-world, why did you rise from your seat and leave while there was still more to be done?”

“Venerable sir, I thought thus: ‘These brahmins are devoted to the Brahma-world. Suppose I teach the brahmin Dhānañjāni the path to the company of Brahmā.’”

“Sāriputta, the brahmin Dhānañjāni has died and has reappeared in the Brahma-world.”899


Hết phần 97. Kinh Dhānañjāni (Dhānanjāni sutta)

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