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Kinh Trung Bộ (Majjhima Nikāya) »» 96. Kinh Esukārī

Esukārī sutta

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Dịch giả: Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli & Bhikkhu Bodhi

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1. THUS HAVE I HEARD. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park.

2. Then the brahmin Esukārī went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said:

3. “Master Gotama, the brahmins prescribe four levels of service. They prescribe the level of service towards a brahmin, the level of service towards a noble, the level of service towards a merchant, and the level of service towards a worker.

Therein, Master Gotama, the brahmins prescribe this as the level of service towards a brahmin: a brahmin may serve a brahmin, a noble may serve a brahmin, a merchant may serve a brahmin, and a worker may serve a brahmin. That is the level of service towards a brahmin [178] that the brahmins prescribe.

Master Gotama, the brahmins prescribe this as the level of service towards a noble: a noble may serve a noble, a merchant may serve a noble, and a worker may serve a noble. That is the level of service towards a noble that the brahmins prescribe.

Master Gotama, the brahmins prescribe this as the level of service towards a merchant: a merchant may serve a merchant and a worker may serve a merchant. That is the level of service towards a merchant that the brahmins prescribe.

Master Gotama, the brahmins prescribe this as the level of service towards a worker: only a worker may serve a worker; for who else could serve a worker?

That is the level of service towards a worker that the brahmins prescribe. What does Master Gotama say about this?”

4. “Well, brahmin, has all the world authorised the brahmins to prescribe these four levels of service?”

— “No, Master Gotama.”

— “Suppose, brahmin, they were to force a cut of meat upon a poor, penniless, destitute man and tell him: ‘Good man, you must eat this meat and pay for it’; so too, without the consent of those [other] recluses and brahmins, the brahmins nevertheless prescribe those four levels of service.

5. “I do not say, brahmin, that all are to be served, nor do I say that none are to be served. For if, when serving someone, one becomes worse and not better because of that service, then I say that he should not be served. And if, when serving someone, one becomes better and not worse because of that service, then I say that he should be served.

6. “If they were to ask a noble thus: ‘Which of these should you serve — one in whose service you become worse and not better when serving him, or one in whose service you become better and not worse when serving him: [179]

answering rightly, a noble would answer thus: ‘I should not serve the one in whose service I become worse and not better when serving him; I should serve the one in whose service I become better and not worse when serving him.’

“If they were to ask a brahmin… to ask a merchant… to ask a worker… answering rightly, a worker would answer thus: ‘I should not serve the one in whose service I become worse and not better when serving him; I should serve the one in whose service I become better and not worse when serving him.’



7. “I do not say, brahmin, that one is better because one is from an aristocratic family, nor do I say that one is worse because one is from an aristocratic family. I do not say that one is better because one is of great beauty, nor do I say that one is worse because one is of great beauty. I do not say that one is better because one is of great wealth, nor do I say that one is worse because one is of great wealth.

8. “For here, brahmin, one from an aristocratic family may kill living beings, take what is not given, misconduct himself in sensual pleasures, speak falsely, speak maliciously, speak harshly, gossip, be covetous, have a mind of ill will, and hold wrong view. Therefore I do not say that one is better because one is from an aristocratic family.

But also, brahmin, one from an aristocratic family may abstain from killing living beings, from taking what is not given, from misconduct in sensual pleasures, from false speech, from malicious speech, from harsh speech, and from gossip, and he may be uncovetous, have a mind without ill will, and hold right view. Therefore I do not say that one is worse because one is from an aristocratic family.

“Here, brahmin, one of great beauty… one of great wealth may kill living beings… and hold wrong view. Therefore I do not say that one is better because one is of great beauty… of great wealth. But also, brahmin, one of great beauty… of great wealth may abstain from killing living beings… and hold right view. Therefore [180] I do not say that one is worse because one is of great beauty… of great wealth.

9. “I do not say, brahmin, that all are to be served, nor do I say that none are to be served. For if, when serving someone, one’s faith, virtue, learning, generosity, and wisdom increase in his service, then I say that he should be served.”

10. When this was said, the brahmin Esukārī said to the Blessed One:

“Master Gotama, the brahmins prescribe four types of wealth. They prescribe the wealth of a brahmin, the wealth of a noble, the wealth of a merchant, and the wealth of a worker.

“Therein, Master Gotama, the brahmins prescribe this as the wealth of a brahmin — wandering for alms;894 a brahmin who spurns his own wealth, wandering for alms, abuses his duty like a guard who takes what has not been given. That is the wealth of a brahmin which the brahmins prescribe.

Master Gotama, the brahmins prescribe this as the wealth of a noble — the bow and quiver; a noble who spurns his own wealth, the bow and quiver, abuses his duty like a guard who takes what has not been given. That is the wealth of a noble which the brahmins prescribe.

Master Gotama, the brahmins prescribe this as the wealth of a merchant — farming and cattle-breeding;895 a merchant who spurns his own wealth, farming and cattle-breeding, abuses his duty like a guard who takes what has not been given. That is the wealth of a merchant which the brahmins prescribe.

Master Gotama, the brahmins prescribe this as the wealth of a worker — the sickle and carrying-pole; a worker who spurns his own wealth, the sickle and carrying-pole, abuses his duty like a guard who takes what has not been given. That is the wealth of a worker which the brahmins prescribe. What does Master Gotama say about this?”

11. “Well, brahmin, has all the world authorised the brahmins to prescribe these four types of wealth?”

— [181] “No, Master Gotama.”

— “Suppose, brahmin, they were to force a cut of meat upon a poor, penniless, destitute man and tell him: ‘Good man, you must eat this meat and pay for it’; so too, without the consent of those [other] recluses and brahmins, the brahmins nevertheless prescribe these four types of wealth.

12. “I, brahmin, declare the noble supramundane Dhamma as a person’s own wealth.896 But recollecting his ancient maternal and paternal family lineage, he is reckoned according to wherever he is reborn.897

If he is reborn in a clan of nobles, he is reckoned as a noble; if he is reborn in a clan of brahmins, he is reckoned as a brahmin; if he is reborn in a clan of merchants, he is reckoned as a merchant; if he is reborn in a clan of workers, he is reckoned as a worker.

Just as fire is reckoned by the particular condition dependent on which it burns — when fire burns dependent on logs, it is reckoned as a log fire; when fire burns dependent on faggots, it is reckoned as a faggot fire; when fire burns dependent on grass, it is reckoned as a grass fire; when fire burns dependent on cowdung, it is reckoned as a cowdung fire —

so too, brahmin, I declare the noble supramundane Dhamma as a person’s own wealth.

But recollecting his ancient maternal and paternal lineage, he is reckoned according to wherever he is reborn. If he is reborn… in a clan of workers, he is reckoned as a worker.

13. “If, brahmin, anyone from a clan of nobles goes forth from the home life into homelessness, and after encountering the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathāgata, he abstains from killing living beings, from taking what is not given, from incelibacy, from false speech, from malicious speech, from harsh speech, and from gossip, and is uncovetous, has a mind without ill will, and holds right view, he is one who is accomplishing the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome. [182]

“If, brahmin, anyone from a clan of brahmins goes forth… If anyone from a clan of merchants goes forth… If anyone from a clan of workers goes forth from the home life into homelessness, and after encountering the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathāgata, he abstains from killing living beings… and holds right view, he is one who is accomplishing the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome.

14. “What do you think, brahmin? Is only a brahmin capable of developing a mind of loving-kindness towards a certain region, without hostility and without ill will, and not a noble, or a merchant, or a worker?”

“No, Master Gotama. Whether it be a noble, or a brahmin, or a merchant, or a worker — those of all four castes are capable of developing a mind of loving-kindness towards a certain region, without hostility and without ill will.”

“So too, brahmin, if anyone from a clan of nobles goes forth… (repeat §13)… he is one who is accomplishing the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome.

15. “What do you think, brahmin? Is only a brahmin capable of taking a loofah and bath powder, going to the river, and washing off dust and dirt, and not a noble, or a merchant, or a worker?”

“No, Master Gotama. Whether it be a noble, or a brahmin, or a merchant, [183] or a worker — those of all four castes are capable of taking a loofah and bath powder, going to the river, and washing off dust and dirt.”

“So too, brahmin, if anyone from a clan of nobles goes forth… (repeat §13)… he is one who is accomplishing the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome.

16. “What do you think, brahmin? Suppose a head-anointed noble king were to assemble here a hundred men of different birth”… (as Sutta 93, §11) [184]…











”For all fire has a flame, a colour, and a radiance, and it is possible to use all fire for the purposes of fire.”

“So too, brahmin, if anyone from a clan of nobles goes forth… (repeat §13)… he is one who is accomplishing the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome.”

17. When this was said, the brahmin Esukārī said to the Blessed One:

“Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!…

From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”


Hết phần 96. Kinh Esukārī (Esukārī sutta)

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