Nếu chúng ta luôn giúp đỡ lẫn nhau, sẽ không ai còn cần đến vận may. (If we always helped one another, no one would need luck.)Sophocles
Chúng ta nên hối tiếc về những sai lầm và học hỏi từ đó, nhưng đừng bao giờ mang theo chúng vào tương lai. (We should regret our mistakes and learn from them, but never carry them forward into the future with us. )Lucy Maud Montgomery
Khi ăn uống nên xem như dùng thuốc để trị bệnh, dù ngon dù dở cũng chỉ dùng đúng mức, đưa vào thân thể chỉ để khỏi đói khát mà thôi.Kinh Lời dạy cuối cùng
Nhà lợp không kín ắt bị mưa dột. Tâm không thường tu tập ắt bị tham dục xâm chiếm.Kinh Pháp cú (Kệ số 13)
Nụ cười biểu lộ niềm vui, và niềm vui là dấu hiệu tồn tại tích cực của cuộc sống.Tủ sách Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn
Sự thành công thật đơn giản. Hãy thực hiện những điều đúng đắn theo phương cách đúng đắn và vào đúng thời điểm thích hợp. (Success is simple. Do what's right, the right way, at the right time.)Arnold H. Glasow
Như đá tảng kiên cố, không gió nào lay động, cũng vậy, giữa khen chê, người trí không dao động.Kinh Pháp cú (Kệ số 81)
Trời sinh voi sinh cỏ, nhưng cỏ không mọc trước miệng voi. (God gives every bird a worm, but he does not throw it into the nest. )Ngạn ngữ Thụy Điển
Bậc trí bảo vệ thân, bảo vệ luôn lời nói, bảo vệ cả tâm tư, ba nghiệp khéo bảo vệ.Kinh Pháp Cú (Kệ số 234)
Như cái muỗng không thể nếm được vị của thức ăn mà nó tiếp xúc, người ngu cũng không thể hiểu được trí tuệ của người khôn ngoan, dù có được thân cận với bậc thánh.Đức Đạt-lai Lạt-ma XIV

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The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra
»» Chapter Four: On Long Life

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Kinh Đại Bát Niết-bàn - QUYỂN 3 - Phẩm THỌ MẠNG - Phẩm thứ nhất – Phần ba

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The Buddha said to all the bhiksus: "If you have any doubt about the moral precepts, you are free to ask questions. I shall now explain and fully satisfy you. I have already practised the Way and clearly attained the true nature of the All-Void of all things. O Bhiksus! Only the Tathagata has practised the true nature of the All-Void of all things." He also said to the bhiksus: "If you have any doubts, ask me, all of you!" Then the bhiksus said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! With the wisdom that we have, we can put no questions to the Tathagata, the Alms-deserving and All-Enlightened One. Why not? The world of the Tathagata cannot be known by us. All samadhis cannot be thought of. Whatever is said is not within the compass of our comprehension. So, with what wisdom we have, there can be no posing of questions to the Tathagata. O World-Honoured One! There is a man, for example, who is 120 years old. Suffering from a long illness, he is in bed and cannot get up. His vitality has gone, so that he cannot live long. There is a rich man there who is on his way to far-off places on business. He gives this man a hundred pounds of gold and says: " I intend to go on a journey and entrust this treasure to you. After 10 or 20 years, I shall come back, when my business is concluded. When I am home again, give this back to me." The sick old man receives it. And he has none to succeed him. After some time, the illness develops and he dies, and what was entrusted to him cannot be found. The person who entrusted the treasure to him comes back from his journey, looks around, but cannot find the man. One like this, being ignorant, cannot think and weigh the good and bad of entrusting a thing to the hands of another person. So, on coming back, he does not know where to look. Thus the treasure gets lost. O World-honoured One! It is the same with us sravakas. We hear the kind admonition of the Tathagata, but we cannot hold it long. It is as with the old man who is entrusted with treasure. We are ignorant now and do not know what to ask regarding the precepts." The Buddha said to the bhiksus: "If you question me now, it will benefit all beings. That is why I say that you should ask about any doubts you may have." Then, all the bhiksus said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! Imagine, for example: there is a man here of 25, full of vitality and right and proper. He has many treasures, such as gold, silver, beryl, etc. He has his parents, wife, children, relatives, and all his family. Then a man comes and hands over a treasure to him, saying: " I have things to do and am about to go on a long journey. My business concluded, I shall be back. When I am back home, return this to me." After this, the young man guards the treasure well, as though it were his own. The [young] man falls ill and says: " All this gold was entrusted to my care. When the man gets back home, give this to him. " One who is wise knows how to act and weigh things. His business concluded, the man returns, and what he had entrusted [to the other] is all safe, with nothing lost. The same with the World-Honoured One. If the treasure is entrusted to Ananda and the bhiksus, it cannot survive long. Why not? Because all sravakas and Mahakasyapa must pass away and the situation will inevitably be like that of the old man who receives the entrusted goods of the other person. Because of this, all the unsurpassed Buddhist teachings must be entrusted to the hands of all Bodhisattvas. They discuss well and the treasure will live long and flourish for infinite thousands of ages and benefit all beings enormously. This is like the case of the man in the prime of his life who receives the entrusted goods of the other person. Because of this, all Bodhisattvas can well pose questions. What wealth we have may be likened to a mosquito or sawfly. How can we question the Tathagata on the depths of the teaching?" At this, all the sravakas sank into silence.

Then, the Buddha, praised all the bhiksus and said: " It is good, it is good that you have all attained the unleakable [undefiled, asrava-free] mind of the arhat. I also thought of this once myself. Because of these two circumstances [i.e. that the sravakas cannot and the Bodhisattvas can pose questions], I entrust the Mahayana to all the Bodhisattvas and allow this Wonderful Dharma to live long" . Then the Buddha said to all the congregation: " O all good men and women! You cannot calculate the length of my life. No unhindered speech of a Bodhisattva can fully express this. You may, if you will, ask me about the precepts or how to take refuge. You may do this a second or third time."

At that time, among those congregated, there was a Bodhisattva-mahasattva of the stage of the boyhood abode [ie. on the 9th of the 10 Bodhisattva levels]. He had been born into a Brahmin family in a hamlet called Tara. His family name was Mahakasyapa. By the divine power of the Buddha, he rose from his seat, bared his right elbow [shoulder] and walked around the Buddha 100 thousand times, and placing his right knee on the ground and folding his hands, said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! I would now like to ask something of the Buddha. If you will allow me, I desire to speak." The Buddha said to Kasyapa: "The Tathagata, the Alms-deserving and All-Enlightened One allows you to say anything. I shall expound for you, clarify your doubt, and gladden you." Then Bodhisattva Kasyapa again said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! The Tathagata, pitying me, gives me permission. I now shall ask. But the wisdom that I have is petty, like that of a mosquito or sawfly. You, Tathagata-World- Honoured One, are exalted in personal virtue and are surrounded by a retinue as fragrant as sandalwood and as difficult to subdue and as invincible as a lion. The Tathagata’s person is like a true diamond. You shine like beryl. All [about you] is true and difficult to break and is surrounded by a great sea of Wisdom. All the Bodhisattva-mahasattvas congregated here are perfect in infinite and boundless depths of virtue. They are like gandhahastins. How can I put questions before such a congregation? Only now, guarded by the Buddha’s divine power and by dint of the great dignity of moral virtue of the people congregated here, shall I put some questions to you." He spoke in a gatha:

"How do we gain long life, the Adamantine and Invincible body?
How do we gain great strength?
How by this sutra do we ultimately attain the other shore?
We beseech you to open the undisclosed door and,
For the sake of beings, teach us widely.
How can we, for the sake of the masses,
Become an expansive refuge and, although not arhats, be equal to arhats?
How can we, for the sake of beings,
Foresee Papiyas’ [i.e. Mara, the Devil’s] disturbances?
How can one clearly distinguish
Between what the Tathagata says and what the Papiyas says?
How does the All-Best-Trainer become pleased in heart
And speak about “Paramartha-satya” [the Truth of the Supreme Reality],
Become full in right good, and speak about the four inversions?
How do you do good? O Great Rishi! Please tell us now.
How do Bodhisattvas fathom the unfathomable nature?
How do they understand the significations of the full letter and the half letter1?
How can we simultaneously practise two holy actions Such as the sarasa and karanda that go together?
How can one be like the sun and moon,
Like the evening star and Jupiter?
How can one, not yet aspiring, be called a Bodhisattva?
How can all beings gain fearlessness, i.e. the word as a composite, made from joining the Sanskrit alphabets and possessing meaning, and the alphabetical letters and phonetic symbols in the case of Sanskrit Like Jambunada gold, in which no flaw can ever be detected?
How can one, though living in a defiled land,
Not be defiled like the lotus flower?
How do we live amidst illusions and
Not get tainted and not attacked by diseases,
As in the case of a doctor who, curing all diseases,
Does not himself get stricken by disease?
How can one be a sea-captain,
Foundering yet [still] amidst the sea of birth and death?
How can one abandon birth and death, as the serpent does its old skin?
How can one meditate on the Three Treasures
And be like the tree in the heavens that answers well one’s wishes?
How can one speak about the three Vehicles2 and the Natureless?
How can one talk of Bliss, being not yet blessed with Bliss?
How can all Bodhisattvas be indestructible ones?
How can one be the eyes and guide for a person born blind?
How can one gain a multifarious head [mind rich in knowledge]
We beseech you, O Great Rishi! Please explain [this] to us!
How can you who turn the wheel of Dharma Expand like the moon at the beginning of the month?
How do you show yourself again and gain Nirvana at the end?
How can you, the brave, step forward
And show to man, heaven and Mara the Way?
How does one know “Dharmata” [essence of Reality]
And become blessed with Dharma?
How do all Bodhisattvas make away with all illnesses?
How do they expound to all beings the undisclosed teachings?
How do they expound the Ultimate and the non-Ultimate?
If doubts [can be] done away with, why not definitely explain?
How can one attain the highest and unsurpassed Way?
I now beseech the Tathagata, for the sake of the Bodhisattvas,
To expound the deepest and most wonderful teachings.
Everything has the nature of peace and bliss.
Expound in detail for us, please, O Great Rishi World-Honoured One!
O Great Refuge! O Two-Footed-Honoured One,
The Wonderful-One-of-All-Medicines!
I now desire to enquire all about things,
But I lack Wisdom; even all the Bodhisattvas
Who make utmost effort may not know Such
depths as of the world of all Buddhas."

Then, praising Bodhisattva Kasyapa, the Buddha said: "Well said, well said, O good man! You have not yet arrived at All-Knowledge, but I am he who has attained it. You now ask about the deepest depths of the undisclosed doctrine. Now, O good man! I, sitting under the Bodhi Tree, first attained right Enlightenment. At that time, in all Buddha-lands as numerous as the sands of countless asamkhyas of Ganges, there were Bodhisattvas. They too asked of me the meaning of this deepest doctrine. And what they said and the virtue thereof were thus, the same, not different. Asking thus, great benefits accrue to all beings." Then Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! The power of my wisdom does not extend thus far as to put such deep questions to the Tathagata. O World-Honoured One! This is like a mosquito or sawfly that cannot fly over a great sea or fly round in the high heavens. The same with me. I have no power to ask the Tathagata about this great sea of Wisdom or the meaning of the great depths of space-like extension of “Dharmata”. O World-Honoured One! This is like a king who hands over to the hands of the officer in charge of treasures a bright gem that was housed in the knot of his hair, and the officer, on receiving it, increases the guard. The same is the case with me. Having received the depths of the Tathagata’s Mahayana teaching, I shall guard it all the more carefully. Why? This is but to make me attain the great depths of Wisdom."

Then the Buddha said to Kasyapa: "O good man! Listen clearly, listen clearly! I shall now tell you the cause of the Tathagata’s longevity of life. The Bodhisattva, through this action, gains long life. For this reason, listen with your best attention. Having listened, speak of it to others. O good man! Having thus practised, I attained unsurpassed Bodhi. I, for all beings’ sake, now speak of this. O good man! As an example: a prince transgresses against state law and is chained up in prison. The king pities him and, riding on a palanquin, goes himself to the prison because he loves the prince. The same with the Bodhisattva. If he desires to have a long life, he should guard and protect beings and view them as one would one’s only son, and abide in great loving-kindness, great compassion, great joy, and great equanimity. Also, he should impart the precept of non-harming to them and teach them to practise all good things. Also, he must let all beings abide peacefully in the five moral precepts and the ten good deeds. Furthermore, he will get into such realms as hell, hungry preta, animal, and asura, and free all these beings from where they are suffering, emancipate those not yet emancipated, pass over those who have not yet gained the other shore, give Nirvana to those who have not yet attained it, and console all who live in fear. Acting thus, the Bodhisattva gains longevity of life and unmolested [unlimited] freedom in knowing. And when the end comes, he gains life in the high heavens." Then Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! You say that the Bodhisattva-mahasattva regards all beings just as one views one’s only son. The thought is too deep, and I cannot fathom it. O World-Honoured One! You say that the Bodhisattva views beings with an all-equal mind and views them as he would look upon his only son. But things are not so. Why not? Amongst the Buddhists, there are those who break the moral precepts, those who commit deadly sins, and those who transgress against Wonderful Dharma. How can it be that he [the Buddha] can have the same [attitude of] mind towards them as towards his only son?" The Buddha said to Kasyapa: " It is so, it is so! I view all beings as I view my own Rahula."

Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! Once, on the 15th of the month, on the day of posadha, among the congregated who were strict and pure in the moral precepts, there was a boy who did not quite seriously observe the three actions of body, mouth and mind. He hid himself in a dark place and secretly listened to what was said. Guhyapada, receiving the divine power of the Buddha, crushed this boy into dust with a vajra3. O World-Honoured One! Guhyapada acted so badly that the boy’s life was taken. How could you look upon all beings as you do your own Rahula?" The Buddha said to Kasyapa: "Do not speak thus! This boy was none but a transformed [illusory, projected] one, not a true one.

This was but to repress breaking of the precepts and transgression against Buddha-Dharma, and to remould beings. Even the vajra and also Guhyapada were transformed existences. O Kasyapa! There are in the world those who slander Wonderful Dharma, icchantikas, those who harm others, those who abide in twisted views, those who purposely act contrary to the moral precepts. I pity all and have loving thought, just as one has towards one’s only son, as in the case of Rahula. O good man! To illustrate: when the officers of the royal court break state law, the king punishes according to the rules relating to the sins committed and does not leave the officers unpunished. The Tathagata does not act thus. He makes those who violate the precepts undergo such procedures as being driven out, reprimanded, put under surveillance, impeached or banished for non-confirming of the sins committed, for non-repentance, and for non-forsaking of twisted views. The reason, O good man, why the Tathagata imposes the suppressive moral precepts on those who slander Dharma arises from the fact that he desires to show those who transgress that karmic consequences ensue for what one has done. O good man! Know that the Tathagata desires to bestow on evil beings what need not be feared. He emits one, two, or five beams, so that those who encounter this light will be rid of all evil acts. Now, the Tathagata has so many uncountable means of such power. O good man! If you desire to see Dharma which cannot be seen, I will now explain to you all about what you can see. When I have entered Nirvana, a bhiksu who is perfect in the deportment of a bhiksu and who observes Wonderful Dharma may come across one who transgresses. If this bhiksu drives away, reproaches, impeaches, or remoulds such an evil-doer, he will be blessed with weal which one cannot measure or tell of. O good man! To illustrate: there is a tyrant king who does evil things and happens to suffer very seriously from illness. The king of a neighbouring state, hearing of this, mobilises the army to overthrow the state. At this, the king, having no power to resist the attack, repents and tries to do good. And the weal of the king of this neighbouring state will be uncountable. The same with the precept-observing bhiksu. If he drives away or reproaches those who act against Dharma and makes them do good, an incalculable [amount of] weal will be his. O good man! As an illustration: in the fields and around the houses where a rich man dwells grow many poisonous tree. Seeing this, he fells all of them and there is no more of them. Or white hair appears on the head of a young man. He feels ashamed of it, cuts it off and does not allow his hair to grow long. The same is the case with a precept-upholding bhiksu. If he sees any person who breaks the precepts and transgresses against Wonderful Dharma, he should drive away, reproach or impeach such a person. If a good bhiksu, seeing one who transgresses against Dharma, does not drive away, reproach or impeach such a person, know that this bhiksu is the enemy of the Buddhist teaching. If he drives away, reproaches or impeaches such a one, he is my disciple, a true disciple."

Bodhisattva Kasyapa said again to the Buddha; "O World-Honoured One! You may say that you look upon all beings equally and treat them as you would an only son such as Rahula. This is not so. O World-honoured One! A person may try to harm you with a sword. Or there may be someone who tries to paint the Buddha’s body with sandalwood paste. If it is is the case that you view both persons with the same eye, how could you cure moral offences? If it is the case that this cures moral offences, this does not make sense." The Buddha said to Kasyapa: " An illustration, O good man! The king, minister and prime minister may desire to bring up their sons who are right-set in countenance and sharp in intellect. One of those fathers takes one, two, three, four such sons and hands them over to a strict teacher and says to him: "Please teach my sons deportment, good behaviour, the arts, writing and reckoning. These my four sons will study under your guidance. Even if three of my sons die of goading, teach the last with whatever means you may think fit. I may lose the three, but I shall not be vexed." O Kasyapa! Are the father and the teacher responsible for killing?" "No, O World-Honoured One! Why not? Because a loving mind was at the bottom [of their actions]. What there is [here] is accomplishment, but not an evil mind. Such teaching will be met with good, to a limitless extent." "O good man! The same is the case with the Tathagata. He views those who transgress Dharma as he views his only son. The Tathagata now entrusts unsurpassed Wonderful Dharma to the hands of kings, ministers, prime ministers, bhiksus, bhiksunis, upasakas and upasikas. All of these kings and the four classes of the Buddhist Sangha will encourage those who practise the Buddhist teaching and enable them increasingly to observe the moral precepts, practise meditation and wisdom. If there are any who miscarry these three phases [aspects] of Dharma and if there are those who are indolent and who break the moral precepts, the kings, ministers, and the four classes of the Buddhist Sangha will work hard and remould such people. O good man! Should all these kings and the four classes of the Buddhist Sangha be blamed or not?" "No, indeed, O World-Honoured One!" "O good man! These kings and the four classes of the Buddhist Sangha are not to be blamed. How could it be that the Tathagata is to be blamed? O good man! The Tathagata well observes such impartiality, looking upon all people as one would one's only son. Such a one who practises the Way is called one who practises the all-equal mind of a Bodhisattva and one who possesses a mind that loves an only son. O good man! The Bodhisattva, practising thus, gains a long life and is now able to see what took place in the past." Bodhisattva Kasyapa said again to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! You say that a Bodhisattva, practising impartiality, can well view beings just as one views one's only son and that such a person gains a long life. But you should not say this. Why not? One who knows Dharma indeed speaks well of filial duty. But back home, he beats his parents with tiles and gravel, [in defiance of] the fact that one’s parents are the best field of weal, where much weal comes about, such as is the most difficult of difficult to encounter. Where the person should be making offerings, he performs evil. There is a distinction between what this person knows and what he does. What the Tathagata says is also like this. The Bodhisattva practises impartiality and views beings as an only son, and he gains a long life, can look into the past, and live eternally and there cannot be any change. Now, why is it that the World-Honoured One is like a person with the shortest life in the world? Does not the Tathagata entertain hatred against all beings? O World-Honoured One! What evil acts did you perform in the past? How many evil acts did you commit, so as to gain the shortest life, which does not even extend to 100 years?" The Buddha said to Kasyapa: "O good man! Under what circumstances do you bring across your lips all such rough-hewn words against the Tathagata? The life of the Tathagata is the longest and most superior of longest lives. His eternal Dharma is the unsurpassed of all eternal things." Bodhisattva Kasyapa said again to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! How did you, the Tathagata, gain eternal life?" The Buddha said to Bodhisattva Kasyapa: " O good man! There are eight great rivers, which are 1) Ganges, 2) Yamuna, 3) Sarabhu, 4) Ajitavati, 5) Mahi, 6) Indus, 7) Pasu, and 8) Sita. All these eight rivers and other small rivers drain into the great ocean. O Kasyapa! All the great rivers of life of all people, heaven, earth and sky drain into the Tathagata’s sea of life. Hence, the length of life of the Tathagata is incalculable. Also, next, O Kasyapa! As an illustration: it is like the case of Lake Anavatapta, which gives rise to four rivers. The same with the Tathagata. He gives rise to all long life-spans (emphasis added). O Kasyapa! As an example: of all eternal things, that of space is the foremost. The same is the case with the Tathagata. He is the foremost of all eternal things. O Kasyapa! This is as in the case of sarpirmanda [most delicious and efficacious medicine], the first of all medicines. The same is the case with the Tathagata. He is the one possessed of the longest life." Bodhisattva Kasyapa said again to the Buddha: "If the life of the Tathagata is thus, you mast live for a kalpa or [just] less than a kalpa and be delivering sermons in the way the great rain falls." "O Kasyapa! Do not entertain the thought of extinction regarding the Tathagata. O Kasyapa! There may be amongst the bhiksus, bhiksunis, upasakas, upasikas, or even among the tirthikas a person who possesses the five divine powers or the unmolested [unlimited] power of a rishi. He may live a kalpa or less than a kalpa; he may be able to fly through the air, and be unmolested [unconstrained] whether he is reclining or sitting. He emits fire from the left side of his body or water from his right side. His body emits smoke and flames like a fire ball. If he desires to live long, he can do as he wills. He can freely lengthen or shorten his life. With such divine power, he has such freedom of power. And how could this not be possible with the Tathagata, who possesses unmolested [unlimited] power in all things? How could it not be that he can live for half a kalpa, a kalpa, 100 kalpas, 100 thousand kalpas, or innumerable kalpas? On account of this, know that “the Tathagata is an eternal and unchanging existence”. The Tathagata’s body is a transformed body and not one supported by various kinds of food. In order to pass beings to the other shore, he manifests himself amidst poisonous trees. Hence he manifests himself discarding his carnal body and entering Nirvana. Know, O Kasyapa, that the Buddha is an eternal and unchanging existence. O all of you! Practise the Way in this Paramartha-satya [Truth of the Transcendent Reality], make effort, and practise the Way with one mind; having practised the Way, expound it widely to others."

Then Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! What difference exists between supramundane Dharma and the mundane? You say that the Buddha is an existence eternal and unchanging. If so, in worldly life, too, we have Brahma who is eternal, and also Isvara who is eternal, and no changing is there. The eternal nature of Self too is eternal; even a mote is also said to be eternal. If the Tathagata is an eternal existence, why does the Tathagata not always show [himself] in this way? If it is that you do not exist thus, what difference could we see? Why? Because Brahma, the mote existence, and prakriti [primordial matter] also do not manifest thus."

The Buddha said to Kasyapa: "A rich man has many cows, whose colours vary; nonethe-less, they are all of one group. They are entrusted to the hands of a cowherd, who takes them to watery or grassy land. Solely sarpirmanda is sought, not fresh milk or cream. The cattleman, having milked the cows, takes the milk himself. When the rich man dies, the cows are stolen by robbers. They get the cows, but having no women, they themselves milk the cows. The robbers say to one another: " The rich man fed these cows for sarpirmanda, not for fresh milk or cream. What should we do? Now, sarpirmanda is the best of all tastes in the world. We have no utensils and no place to keep it safe in." They also say to one another: "We have a bag made of hide. We shall keep it in that. Although we have a thing to keep the milk in, we do not know how to churn it. It is hard to obtain what we could drink. How could we gain fresh butter?" At that, the robbers, because sarpirmanda was what they were after, added water to the milk. But because they added too much water, the fresh milk, cream, and sarpirmanda were all lost. The same with common mortals. There are good teachings. But all are the residues of the Wonderful Dharma of the Tathagata. How? The Tathagata enters Nirvana. Later we steal what was left behind, i.e. the precepts, samadhi, and Wisdom. This is like the robbers stealing the cows. All common mortals obtain the precepts, samadhi, and Wisdom, but they have no means of working them out [perfecting them, implementing them]. Hence they never gain the eternal precepts, the eternal samadhi, the eternal Wisdom, and emancipation. This is like the robbers’ not having the means to work out [bring forth what they want], thus losing the sarpirmanda; or it is like the robbers’ adding water when they meant to gain sarpirmanda. The same with common mortals. Referring to emancipation, beings say that Self, being, life, man, Brahma, Isvara, prakriti, the precepts, samadhi, Wisdom, emancipation, or Thoughtless-nonthoughtlessness Heaven [naivasamjnana- samjnayatana] or Nirvana is Nirvana. This, however [i.e. just saying this] does not give one emancipation or Nirvana. This is like the robbers’ failing to gain sarpirmanda. Common mortals do small-scale pure actions and make offerings to their parents. Then they gain rebirth in heaven and attain small-scale bliss. This is like the milk to which the robbers added water. And common mortals do not themselves know the fact that one gets born in heaven by small-scale pure actions and making offerings to one’s parents. Also, they do not know the moral precepts, samadhi, Wisdom and taking refuge in the Three Treasures. Not knowing [all this], they talk about Eternity, Bliss, Self, and Purity. Though they talk, they do not know what these are. Hence, after taking birth in this life, the Tathagata talks about Eternity, Bliss, Self, and Purity. A chakravartin [world’s greatest, just ruler] appears in the world. By the power of virtue, all the robbers pull back, and there is no loss of any cows. Then the chakravartin entrusts the cows to the hands of a cowherd who knows the way. This person works out the means well and obtains sarpirmanda. Due to the sarpirmanda, there is no illness or pain for any being. It is like this. When the chakravartin of the wheel of Dharma appears in the world, all beings abandon these, because they cannot talk about the precepts, samadhi, and Wisdom. This is like the pulling back of the robbers. Then the Tathagata indeed speaks of secular and supramundane things. For the benefit of beings, he lets the Bodhisattva talk as the occasion arises. The Bodhisattva-mahasattva, on gaining sarpirmanda, lets all the innumerable beings gain the unsurpassed manna of Dharma. The Eternity, Bliss, Self, and Purity of the Tathagata thus come about [appear, are realised]. The Tathagata is one who is eternal and unchanging. This is not in the manner in which common mortals and the ignorant of the world say that Brahma is eternal. This eternality is always with the Tathagata and not with whatever else. O Kasyapa! All good men and good women should always carefully practise the Way of the two-lettered Buddha, who is eternal4. O Kasyapa! Any good man or good woman who practises the Way of the two-lettered, such a one accords with what I do and gets born where I go. If any person practises the two letters and sees it as extinction, know that the Tathagata enters Parinirvana to [in the eyes of] such a one. O good man! Nirvana is the “Dharmata” [True Essence] of all Buddhas."

Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "What might the “Dharmata” of the Tathagata mean? O World-Honoured One! I now desire to know about “Dharmata”. Have pity and expound this to me extensively. Now, “Dharmata” means "abandoning one’s body". To abandon means "not to possess". If not possessed, how can the body exist? If the body exists, how can we say that there is “Dharmata” in the body? If the body possesses “Dharmata”, how can the body exist? How can I know of this?" The Buddha said to Kasyapa: " O good man! Do not speak thus - that extinction is “Dharmata”. Now, “Dharmata” knows no extinction. O good man! This is as with the no-thought heaven [the fourth dhyana heaven of the rupadhatu - Realm of Form], where there is no thought of matter, though matter is perfectly equipped [provided]. One might ask: " How, then, can devas live there, please and amuse themselves, and have peace, and how do they think, see, and ask?" O good man! The world of the Tathagata is not one which sravakas and pratyekabuddhas can know. Do not so explicate and say that the body of the Tathagata is extinction. O good man! The Tathagata and extinction are matters for the world of Buddhas. It is not within sravakas’ and pratyekabuddhas’ reach of knowing. O good man! Do not entertain such thoughts as where the Tathagata lives, where he works, where he is to be seen, where he enjoys himself. O good man! Such, too, are things which do not come within the compass of your knowing. Everything regarding the Dharma-Body of all Buddhas and everything regarding the various expedients are beyond the range of [worldly] knowing.

" Also, next, O good man! Practise the teaching of the Buddha, Dharma and the life of the Sangha, and abide in the thought of the Eternal. These three things do not contradict one another. There is no form of the non-eternal [there], no change. Any person practising these three as things which differ fails in the Three Refuges which are pure. This we should know. This is to say that such a person lacks a place to abide in. No precept is fully learned; no fruit can come about of sravakas or pratyekabuddhas. Anyone who abides in the thought of the Eternal in this All-Wonderfulness has a place to take refuge in. O good man! It is like the shadow accompanying a tree. The same is the case with the Tathagata. As there is the Eternal, there is a refuge that can be taken. It is not non-eternal. If it is said that the Tathagata is non-eternal, he cannot be a refuge for all the heavens and people of the world."

Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! It is, for example, like the case of a tree in the darkness, where there is no shadow." "O Kasyapa! Do not say that there is a tree and that it has no shadow. It is merely that the fleshly eye cannot see it. The same with the Tathagata. His nature is eternal; it does not change. One cannot see [it] without the eye of Wisdom. This is as in the case where no tree-shadow appears in the darkness. Common mortals, after the death of the Buddha, may well say: "The Tathagata is non-eternal." This is the same. If one says that the Tathagata is other than Dharma and Sangha, there cannot be the Three Refuges. This is as in the case in which, as your parents are different from each other, there is the non-eternal." Bodhisattva Kasyapa said again to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! Henceforth, I, for the first time, shall, with the Eternalism of the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha, enlighten parents for ages, down to seven generations. It is wonderful indeed! O World- Honoured One! I shall now learn the All-Wonderfulness of the Tathagata, Dharma and Sangha. Having satisfied myself, I shall expound this widely to all others. If they do not have faith in the teaching, I will know that they have long practised the non-Eternal. To such as these I shall be like frost and hail."

Then the Buddha praised Bodhisattva Kasyapa and said: " Well said, well said! You now indeed protect and uphold Wonderful Dharma. Such protection of Dharma is no cheating of people. By the good act of not cheating [deceiving] others, one obtains a long life and becomes well able to read one’s past lives."

***

Then the World-Honoured One said to Kasyapa: "O good man! The body of the Tathagata is one that is eternal, one that is indestructible, and one that is adamantine, one that is not sustained by various kinds of food. It is the Dharma-Body." Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! We do not see such a body as you speak of. What we see is one which is non-eternal, destructible, of dust, one sustained by various kinds of food. How? In that you, the Tathagata, are now about to enter Nirvana." The Buddha said to Kasyapa: "Do not say that the body of the Tathagata is not strong, can easily be broken, and is the same as that of common mortals. O good man! Know that the body of the Tathagata is as indestructible as that which stands for countless billions of kalpas. It is neither the body of man or heaven, not one that fears, not one sustained by various kinds of food. The body of the Tathagata is one that is not a body and yet is a body. It is one not born and one that does not die. It is one that does not learn or practise. It is one innumerable and boundless and one that does not leave any tracks behind. It knows not and has no form to represent it. It is one ultimately pure. It does not shake. It does not receive, nor does it do [act]. It does not abide, does not make. It is tasteless and unmixed. It is an " is" and yet is not something created. It is neither action nor fruition [i.e. it is beyond Karma]. It is not one made, not one that dies. It is no mind; it is one not countable [whose dimensions can be reckoned]; It is the All-Wonderful, the one Eternal, and the one not presumable. It is not consciousness and is apart from mind. And yet it does not depart from mind. It is a mind that is all-equal. It is not an " is" ; yet it is what is " is" . There is no going and no coming [with it]; and yet it goes and comes. It does not break up. It is one indestructible. It does not snap and does not cease. It does not come out, nor does it die out. It is no master and yet a master. It is not one that exists; nor does it not exist. It awakes not, nor does it see. It is no letter, and is not no letter. It is no dhyana [meditation] and is not no dhyana. It cannot be seen and can be well seen. It is no place and yet is a place. It is no abode and yet is an abode. It is not dark and not bright. There is no quietness and yet there is quietness [in it]. It is non-possession, non-receiving, and non-giving. It is pure and untainted. It is no quarrelling and is never fighting. It is what is living and is not what is living. It is no taking and no falling. It is no thing and is not no thing. It is no field of weal and is not no field of weal. It is non-ending and does not end. It is separating and is a total ending. It is Void and is apart from Void. Though not eternal, it is not the case that it dies out moment after moment. There is no defilement and muddling [contamination]. There is no letter and it is apart from letters. It is no voice and no talking. It is no practising and learning. It is no praising and no weighing. It is not one and is not different. It has no form or characteristics. All is grand adornment. It is not brave and is not afraid. It is no quietness and is not quiet. It is heatless and is not hot. It cannot be seen; there is no form to represent it. The Tathagata succours all beings. While not emancipating, he yet indeed emancipates beings. There being no emancipation, there is the awakening of beings. There being no enlightening, he truly delivers sermons. There being not two, he is immeasurable and is incomparably equal. Being as flat as space, there is no form to represent [him]. Being equal to the nature of beings, he is not the "not-is", nor is he the "is". He always practises the One Vehicle. He sees the three of beings and does not retrogress, does not change, and cuts off all the roots of illusion. He does not fight or touch. He is non-nature and yet abides in nature. He does not merge and does not disperse. He is not long and not short. He is not round and not square. He is no skandha, sphere or realm, and yet he is the skandha, sphere, and realm. He is non-increasing and is not a lessening. He is no victor, and yet is one not vanquished. The body of the Tathagata is perfect in such innumerable virtues. There is none that he knows, none not known. There is none that is seen and none that is not seen. It is not that there is any creating and not that there is no creating. It is non-world and is not non-world. He does not do and is not non-doing. He is none to depend upon and is not none to depend upon. He is not the four great elements, nor is he not the four great elements. He is no cause and is not no cause. He is no being and is not no being. He is no sramana, no Brahmin. He is the Lion, the Great Lion. He is nobody and not nobody. We cannot express. Other than the oneness of Dharma, no counting is possible. At the time of the Parinirvana, he does not enter parinirvana. The Dharma-Body of the Tathagata is perfect in all such innumerable, wonderful virtues. O Kasyapa! Only the Tathagata knows all such phases [aspects, modalities] of existence. All [this] is beyond what sravakas and pratyekabuddhas can know. O Kasyapa! The body of the Tathagata is composed of all such virtues. It is not a body maintained or nourished by various foodstuffs. O Kasyapa! The virtue of the true body of the Tathagata is such. How could it suffer from illnesses, the pain of illness, and insecurity? How could it be as brittle as an unfired piece of earthenware? O Kasyapa! The reason why the Tathagata manifests illness and pain all comes from his desire to subdue beings. O good man! Know now that the Tathagata's body is one that is adamantine. From now on, think exclusively of this signification. Never think of a body sustained by food. Also, tell all beings that the body of the Tathagata is the Dharma-Body."

Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! The Tathagata is perfect in all such virtues. How could it be that such a body could suffer from illness and pain, impermanence, and destruction? Henceforth I shall regard the Tathagata's body as of the eternal Dharma-Body and the body of peace. Also, I shall speak of it to all others as such. Yes, indeed, the Tathagata's Dharma-Body is adamantine and indestructible. And yet, I do not know how it could come to be thus." The Buddha said to Kasyapa: "By correctly upholding Wonderful Dharma, one obtains this adamantine body. O Kasyapa! As I have in the past well guarded Dharma, I am now blessed with perfecting this adamantine body, which is eternal and indestructible. O good man! One who upholds Wonderful Dharma does not receive the five precepts and practise deportment, but protects with the sword, bow, arrow, and halberd those bhiksus who uphold the precepts and who are pure." Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! If a bhiksu is unprotected, living alone in the open, in a graveyard, or under a tree, I say that such a one is a true bhiksu. Any bhiksu whose eyes turn to protection is, we may know, a bogus priest." The Buddha said to Kasyapa: "Do not say "bogus". There may be a bhiksu who goes where he will, satisfies his personal needs, recites sutras, sits, and meditates. Should anyone come and ask about the Way, he will bestow sermons. He will speak about giving, observing the precepts, virtuous acts, and say that one should desire little and be satisfied. But he is not able to raise the lion’s roar of the doctrine, is not surrounded by lions, and is not able to subdue those who do evil. Such a bhiksu cannot realise his own profit, nor is he able to assist others. Know that this person is indolent and lazy. Though he may well uphold the precepts and stick to pure actions, such a person, you should know, can do nothing. Or there may be a bhiksu whose utensils may be full. And he upholds the prohibitive precepts, and always utters the lion’s roar, and delivers wonderful sermons on such as the sutras, geya, vyakarana, gatha, udana, itivrttaka, jatakas, vaipulya, and adbutadharma. He thus expounds these nine types of Buddhist sutras. He bestows benefit and peace upon others. Thus he says: "Prohibitions are given in the Nirvana Sutra to bhiksus which say that they should not keep menials, cows, sheep, or anything contrary to the prohibitions. Should bhiksus keep such defiled things, they must be taught not to. The Tathagata has stated in the sutras of various schools that any bhiksu who keeps such things must be corrected, just as kings correct bad acts, and must be driven back into secular life." When a bhiksu raises such a lion’s roar, anyone who breaks the precepts, on hearing this, will get all angry and harm this priest. If this person dies as a result of this, he is to be called one who upholds the precepts and who benefits both his own self and others. For this reason, kings, ministers, prime ministers and upasakas protect those who deliver sermons. Any person who protects Wonderful Dharma should learn things thus. O Kasyapa! Any person who thus breaks the precepts and who does not protect Wonderful Dharma is to be called a bogus priest. One who is strict in observance of the rules does not gain such a name. O good man! In the past - innumerable, boundless, asamkhyas of kalpas past - there appeared in this town of Kusinagara a Buddha who was the Alms-deserving, the All-Enlightened One, the All-accomplished One, the Well-gone, the All-knower, the Unsurpassed One, the Best Trainer, the Teacher of Heaven and Earth, the Buddha-World-Honoured One, and whose name was "Tathagata of Joy-and-Benefit-Augmentation." At that time, the world was wide and gloriously pure, rich and peaceful. The people were at the height of prosperity and no hunger was felt. He [They] looked like the Bodhisattvas of the Land of Peace and Happiness. That Buddha-World-Honoured One stayed in the world for an innumerable length of time. Having taught the people, he entered Parinirvana between the twin sal trees. The Buddha having entered Nirvana, the teaching remained in the world for countless billions of years and in the last part of the remaining 40 years the Buddhist teaching had still not died. At that time, there was a bhiksu called " Enlightened-Virtuous" , who upheld the precepts well and was surrounded by many of his relatives. He raised the lion's roar and preached all the nine types of sutras. He taught, saying: " Do not keep menials, men or women, cows, sheep or whatever might go against the precepts." At that time there were many bhiksus who were acting contrary to the precepts. On hearing this, they entertained ill-will and came upon this bhiksu, brandishing swords and staffs. At that time, there was a king called "Virtuous". He heard of this. To protect Dharma, he came to where the bhiksu was delivering his sermons and fought against the evil doers so that the bhiksu did not suffer. The king, however, received wounds all over his body. Then the bhiksu, Enlightened-Virtuous, praised the king, saying: " Well done, well done, O King! You are a person who protects Wonderful Dharma. In days to come, you will become the unsurpassed utensil of Dharma." The king listened to his sermon and rejoiced. Then he died and was born in the land of Buddha Akshobhya and became his foremost disciple. The subjects of this king, his relatives and soldiers were all glad and did not retrogress in their Bodhichitta [resolve to gain Enlightenment]. When the day came to depart the world, they were born in the land of Buddha Akshobhya. At the time when Wonderful Dharma is about to die out, one should act and protect Dharma like this. O Kasyapa! The king at that time was I; the bhiksu who delivered the sermon was Buddha Kasyapa. O Kasyapa! One who guards Wonderful Dharma is recompensed with such incalculable fruition. That is why I today adorn my body in various ways and have perfectly achieved the indestructible Dharma-Body."

Bodhisattva Kasyapa further said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! The eternal body of the Tathagata is one carved in stone, as it were." The Buddha said to Kasyapa: "O good man! For that reason, bhiksus, bhiksunis, upasakas, upasikas should all the more make effort and protect Wonderful Dharma. The reward for protecting Wonderful Dharma is extremely great and innumerable. O good man! Because of this, those upasakas who protect Dharma should take the sword and staff and protect such a bhiksu who guards Dharma. Even though a person upholds the precepts, we cannot call that person one who upholds Mahayana. Even though a person has not received [in formal ceremony] the five precepts, if he protects Wonderful Dharma, such a one can well be called one of Mahayana. A person who upholds the Wonderful Dharma should take the sword and staff and guard bhiksus." Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! If all bhiksus are to be accompanied by such upasakas with the sword and staff, can we say that they are worthy of the name, or are they unworthy of such? Or is this upholding the precepts or not?" The Buddha said to Kasyapa: " Do not say that such persons are those who transgress the precepts. O good man! After I have entered Nirvana, the world will be evil-ridden and the land devastated, each pillaging the other, and the people will be driven by hunger. At such a time, because of hunger, men may make up their minds, abandon home and enter the Sangha. Such persons are bogus priests. Such, on seeing those persons who are strict in their observance of the precepts, right in their deportment, and pure in their deeds, upholding Wonderful Dharma, will drive such away or kill them or cause harm to them." Bodhisattva Kasyapa said again to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! How can all such persons upholding the precepts and guarding Wonderful Dharma get into villages and castle towns and teach?" " O good man! That is why I allow those who uphold the precepts to be accompanied by the white-clad people [lay people, non-monks] with the sword and staff. Although all kings, ministers, rich lay men [grhapati] and upasakas may possess the sword and staff for protecting Dharma, I call this upholding the precepts. You may possess the sword and staff, “but do not take life”. If things are thus, we call this first-hand upholding of the precepts." Kasyapa said: "Anyone who protects Dharma abides in right view and widely expounds the Mahayana sutras. He does not carry the bejewelled parasols of royal persons, oil pots, unpolished rice, or fruit and seeds. He does not approach a king, minister, or the rich for profit. He does not flatter the danapatis [alms-givers] and is perfect in deportment, and crushes down those who transgress against the precepts and who do evil. Such a person is called a teacher who upholds and protects Dharma. He is a true, good teacher of the Way [kalyana-mitra - a good friend]. His mind is as expansive as the sea." "O Kasyapa! Should there be a bhiksu who speaks about Dharma for profit, the people and his relatives will also follow his example and greedily seek profit. This person thus spoils [does harm to] people. O Kasyapa! Of priests there are three kinds: 1) the precept-breaking, mixed-up priest, 2)the ignorant priest, 3)the pure priest. The precept-breaking mixed-up priest can easily be broken [spiritually injured], whereas the precept-observing priest cannot be broken just by profit.

" How is one a precept-breaking mixed-up priest? A bhiksu may be upholding the pre-cepts, but for profit he sits, stands up, goes and comes with precept-breaking people and is on friendly terms with them and does things together with them. This is precept-breaking, hence, " mixed-up" .

" Why do we call a priest ignorant? A bhiksu may be living in a quiet place, but all his sense-organs are not proper [controlled], his mind is dark and slow at working. He desires little and begs alms. On the day of admonition and freedom [pravarana], he does not teach pure confession to all the people; seeing many people breaking the precepts, he does not teach them pure confession. Yet he sits with others, talks about the precepts and seeks to be free. Such a one is an ignorant priest.

"Who is the pure priest? There is a bhiksu, a priest whom 100 thousand-billion Maras cannot break. Now, this Bodhisattva is pure in his nature and can train the two types of priest referred to above and make them live among those who are pure. He is the unsurpassed great teacher, who protects Dharma well, who well upholds the precepts. He knows well what is light or grave in the keeping of the precepts and adjusts and benefits people. He does not know anything that is not [characterised by] upholding the precepts; what he knows is what concerns the precepts.

" What does he do to adjust beings? For example, in order to adjust people, the Bod- hisattva always enters a village any time and visits the places where widows and prostitutes live. He lives there for many years. This is what sravakas cannot do. This is what is called adjusting and benefiting beings.

" How does he know what is grave? Now, if one sees that the Tathagata admonishes and prohibits something, one should not do it thereafter. Things such as the four grave offences [killing, stealing, committing sexual misconduct, telling lies] are what the priest must not do. If, contrary to this, he purposely does [such things], this indicates that such a person is no longer a bhiksu, no son of the Shakya [Buddha]. This is what is "grave".

" What is " light" ? A person commits light ill deeds and is thrice admonished. Then, he stops doing such again. This is " light" . We say " non-vinaya which is not proved" . A person praises and says that one may receive and take impure things, and says that one accords with the word, and one does not stop doing [this].

"We say "right vinaya which is rightly responded [observed]." This is correctly learning the vinaya [rules of monastic discipline], not drawing near to what is contrary to the vinaya, and spiritually sharing pleasure. Thus one ensures that the vinaya is observed. Thus one well understands what one ought to do as a Buddhist and one expounds it well. This is what the vinaya refers to as well understanding the one letter [i.e. the Chinese written character for vinaya]. The same applies to upholding the sutras. O good man! The Buddha-Dharma is incalculable and hard to fathom The same is also the case with the Tathagata. He is beyond knowing." Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! It is so, it is so. It is as you, the Holy One, say. Unbounded and incomprehensible is Buddha-Dharma. Thus, too, is the Tathagata. All stands beyond comprehension; so too the Tathagata. Thus, I know now that the Tathagata is eternal and indestructible and that there is no change with him. I shall now study well and expound it widely to people."

Then the Buddha praised Bodhisattva Kasyapa and said: "Well said, well said! The body of the Tathagata is adamantine and indestructible. You, Bodhisattva, now have the right view and right understanding. If you see clearly thus, you will see the adamantine and indestructible body of the Tathagata just as you see things reflected in a mirror."

Chapter Six: On the Virtue of the Name

Then the Tathagata spoke again to Kasyapa: "O good man! You should now uphold all the words, chapters, clauses and all the virtues thereof of this sutra. Any good man or woman who hears the name of this sutra will never get born into the four realms [of hell, hungry ghost, animal, and asura]. Why not? I shall now expound to you all the virtues of this sutra and all that is practised by innumerable boundless Buddhas."

Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "O World-Honoured One! What is this sutra to be called? How should Bodhisattva-mahasattvas uphold this sutra?" The Buddha said to Kasyapa: "The name of this sutra is to be “Mahaparinirvana”. The foremost word betokens "good", the middle also "good", and the final "good" too. The signification [of this sutra] is extremely deep, and what is written [in it] is good. The pureness of its arrangement is perfect, its action is pure, and its adamantine treasure-house is all-satisfying. Listen well, listen well! I shall now speak. O good man! The word "maha" betokens "eternal". This is like all the great rivers draining into the great ocean. The same with this sutra. It crushes out all the bonds of illusion and all the qualities of Mara, and then body and life drain into " Mahaparinirvana" . Hence we say "Mahaparinirvana." O good man! This is like a doctor who has a secret treatment embracing all medical treatments for disease. O good man! It is the same with the Tathagata. All the various wonderful doctrines taught and all the secret depths of meaning find their way into this Mahaparinirvana. That is why we say Mahaparinirvana. O good man! It is like a farmer who sows seed in spring. He entertains a rare wish. When he has finished the harvesting, all his longing is at an end. O good man! The same is the case with all beings. If we study other sutras, we always long for beautiful tastes. When one once hears this Mahaparinirvana, [however], one long ceases to covet the beautiful tastes mentioned in other sutras. This great Nirvana well enables all beings to cross the sea of all existences. O good man! Of all footprints, that of the elephant is the best. The same with this sutra. Of all the samadhis of the sutras, that of this sutra is the best. O good man! Of all the tillings of the field, that done in autumn is best. The same with this sutra. It is the best of all sutras. It is like sarpirmanda, which is the best of all medicines. It thoroughly cures the feverish worries and madding minds of beings. This Great Nirvana is the foremost of all. O good man! It is like sweet butter which contains the eight tastes. The same also applies to this sutra. It contains the eight tastes. What are the eight? These are: 1) it is eternal, 2) it always is, 3) it is peaceful, 4) it is pure and cool, 5) it does not grow old, 6) it does not die, 7) it is taintless, and 8) it is pleasing and happy. These are the eight tastes. It possesses these eight tastes. This is why we say "Mahaparinirvana". Now, all Bodhisattva-mahasattvas peacefully abide in this and manifest Nirvana in all places. That is why we say " Mahaparinirvna" . O Kasyapa! All good men and women who desire to enter Nirvana by this Mahaparinirvana must study well the fact that the Tathagata is eternal and that the Dharma and Sangha are eternal."

Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "All is wonderful, O World-Honoured One! We cannot conceive of the Tathagata's depths of virtue. The same is the case with the virtues of Dharma and Sangha. This Mahaparinirvana is also inconceivable. One who studies this sutra will gain the right eye of Dharma and become a good doctor. Anybody who has not studied this sutra, we should know, is [like] a blind person, not possessing the eye of Wisdom and overshadowed by ignorance."

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