Dễ thay thấy lỗi người, lỗi mình thấy mới khó.Kinh Pháp cú (Kệ số 252)
Thành công là tìm được sự hài lòng trong việc cho đi nhiều hơn những gì bạn nhận được. (Success is finding satisfaction in giving a little more than you take.)Christopher Reeve
Vui thay, chúng ta sống, Không hận, giữa hận thù! Giữa những người thù hận, Ta sống, không hận thù!Kinh Pháp Cú (Kệ số 197)
Khó thay được làm người, khó thay được sống còn. Khó thay nghe diệu pháp, khó thay Phật ra đời!Kinh Pháp Cú (Kệ số 182)
Cái hại của sự nóng giận là phá hoại các pháp lành, làm mất danh tiếng tốt, khiến cho đời này và đời sau chẳng ai muốn gặp gỡ mình.Kinh Lời dạy cuối cùng
Không làm các việc ác, thành tựu các hạnh lành, giữ tâm ý trong sạch, chính lời chư Phật dạy.Kinh Đại Bát Niết-bàn
Chúng ta phải thừa nhận rằng khổ đau của một người hoặc một quốc gia cũng là khổ đau chung của nhân loại; hạnh phúc của một người hay một quốc gia cũng là hạnh phúc của nhân loại.Đức Đạt-lai Lạt-ma XIV
Kỳ tích sẽ xuất hiện khi chúng ta cố gắng trong mọi hoàn cảnh.Sưu tầm
Cuộc đời là một tiến trình học hỏi từ lúc ta sinh ra cho đến chết đi. (The whole of life, from the moment you are born to the moment you die, is a process of learning. )Jiddu Krishnamurti
Từ bi và độ lượng không phải là dấu hiệu của yếu đuối, mà thực sự là biểu hiện của sức mạnh.Đức Đạt-lai Lạt-ma XIV

Trang chủ »» Danh mục »» TỦ SÁCH RỘNG MỞ TÂM HỒN »» The Buddha and His Disciples »» The Land Of The Rose Apple »»

The Buddha and His Disciples
»» The Land Of The Rose Apple

(Lượt xem: 501)
Xem trong Thư phòng    Xem định dạng khác    Xem Mục lục  Vietnamese || Đối chiếu song ngữ


       

Đức Phật và chúng đệ tử - Vùng đất cây jambu

Font chữ:


SÁCH AMAZON



Mua bản sách in

1. Although the Dhamma is a direct outcome of the Buddha’s own understanding, the form in which it was proclaimed to the world was, of course, very much influenced by the culture in which the Buddha lived. Therefore, some understanding of this culture will help to give a better understanding of the Dhamma.

2. India is a huge, wedge-shaped subcontinent with the Arabian Sea to its west, the Andaman Sea to its east and the snowy peaks of the Himalayas to its north. In ancient times it was known as the land of the Rose Apple (Jambudipa). The Buddha was born and lived all his life in north-central India in the area known then as the Middle Land (Majjhima Desa), so called because it was believed to be, by the people who lived there, the centre of the earth. The whole area consists of a vast, f lat, fertile plain through which f low two great rivers, the Ganges and the Yamuna, and many smaller rivers. There are three seasons – summer, when the temperature can reach as high as 40°; the rainy season, when the rivers flood and travel becomes difficult; and the winter, when the days can be pleasant but the nights can be freezing. In the Buddha’s time, large areas of northern India were covered by jungle and the people who lived in the many villages that bordered the jungles often encountered lions, elephants, deer, rhinoceros and other wild animals.

The population of this northern part of India was much smaller than it is today; there was plenty of arable land for farming and most people had more than enough to eat. Even very poor farmers could supplement their diet or income by hunting wild animals and collecting the abundant fruits that the forests provided.

3. The India the Buddha knew was not a single political unit but rather a collection of independent countries, often vying with each other for supremacy. The largest and most powerful of these countries was the kingdom of Magadha, which during most of the Buddha’s life was ruled by King Bimbasara, a strong and effective ruler who took a great interest in religion. The capital of Magadha was Rajagaha (The King’s Abode) which nestled amongst rugged hills and was protected by massive stone walls, the remains of which can still be seen today. A short time after the Buddha’s final Nirvana, Magadha shifted its capital from Rajagaha to Pataligama, later to be called Pataliputta and today called Patna, and within a hundred and fifty years had conquered nearly all of India. Directly north of Magadha and separated from it by the Ganges River was the Vajjian Confederacy. The Vajjian Confederacy was made up of several tribes, two of which were called the Licchavies and the Videhas, who had united to protect themselves from their powerful neighbour in the south. The Licchavies were the most important tribe in the Confederacy and their chief city Vesali was the de facto capital of the Confederacy.

Along the western border of the Vajjian Confederacy was Malla, a small tribal republic divided into two parts, one with its capital at Kusinara and the other with its capital at Pava.

North of Malla were the two small semi-independent republics of the Sakyans and the Koliyans with their capitals at Kapilavatthu and Devadaha respectively. These and the other tribal states were not ruled by kings but by councils made up of the leading citizens, not unlike those that ruled the ancient Greek city-states. The councils would meet regularly and everyone was free to speak their mind.

North-west of Magadha was Kosala, the second largest and most powerful country of the time. During most of the Buddha’s life Kosala was ruled by King Pasenadi from his capital at Savatthi. Kosala exercised a great deal of influence over the Sakyans. South-east of Kosala was Vamsa with its capital at Kosambi on the Yamuna River. During much of the Buddha’s time Vamsa was ruled by King Udena.

4. The 5th century B.C.E. was a period of transition. Old tribal republics were breaking up under the impact of predatory and autocratic kingdoms like Kosala and Magadha. Cities were becoming larger and more sophisticated, and people were leaving their villages and farms and flocking to Kosambi, Savatthi, Rajagaha and other urban centres.

5. Indian society was divided very sharply by the caste system (catuvana). The caste that people were born into determined what work they did, their status in society, who they married, where they lived and who they ate with, in fact almost every aspect of their lives. The highest caste were the Brahmins, who were the hereditary priests of Brahminism, the educators and the scholars. Below them were the Khattiyas, the warrior caste, who were rulers, administrators and soldiers. The next caste were the Vessa, the merchants, traders and artisans. At the bottom of the caste system were the Sudas, who worked as farmers, labourers and menial workers. Outside the caste system were the Candalas, the outcastes, who were considered beyond the pale of civilised society and whose touch was considered to be polluting. They lived on the outskirts of towns and villages, and were compelled to do degrading jobs like collecting rubbish, removing dead bodies, tanning and sweeping the streets. The caste system gave society a great deal of stability but it made social change and mobility almost impossible and it also engendered a great deal of cruelty towards lower castes and outcastes.

Originally the caste system was only a social institution but later it was integrated into Brahminism and given religious sanction, and most Brahminical and Hindu literature accepts the caste system as having been ordained by God.

6. Writing was known at the Buddha’s time but it was not widely used. The reason for this was that India had long before perfected ways of committing literature to memory and passing it on with such accuracy that writing was simply not necessary. The Vedas, the sacred hymns of Brahminism, had been composed nearly a millennium before the Buddha, and indeed were not written down for many centuries after his final Nirvana, and yet they were faithfully preserved. Songs, legends, histories, sacred texts and large amounts of other literature that formed a part of the culture of the day were all preserved orally.

7. The prevailing religion in India during the Buddha’s time was Brahminism, not Hinduism as is commonly supposed – Hinduism being an amalgamation of Brahminism, Buddhism and various folk cults which developed only many centuries after the Buddha.

Brahminism believed in a supreme creator god named Brahma and many lesser gods like Aggi, the god of fire, Indra, the king of gods, Yama, the king of the under- world, Suriya, the god of the sun, and so on. These gods were propitiated with sacrifices (yàga) which were thrown into the ritual fire and were then believed to be taken to heaven in the smoke. Ordinary folk might make small sacrifices of grain or ghee, but the wealthy or royalty would sometimes sacrifice large numbers of animals, usually cows but occasionally even human beings. Sacrifices were very complex affairs and it was believed that they would bring down the blessings from the gods only if they were performed absolutely correctly. Only the Brahmins, the hereditary priests knew how to perform the sacrificial rituals correctly, a knowledge that they jealously guarded, and they expected to be well paid for their services. As a result of this, Brahmins had a well-earned reputation for greed and avarice. Another important practice in Brahminism was ritual bathing. It was believed that if a person did evil it could be cleansed or washed away by bathing in certain sacred rivers, the most popular of which was the Ganges.

8. By the Buddha’s time, there was widespread dissatisfaction with Brahminism and many people, including many Brahmin intellectuals, were becoming interested in new religious ideas. Parallel to Brahminism and much older was the tradition of unorthodox ascetic teachers (samana) who were beginning to attract increasing interest. The most famous of these ascetics was Nataputta, known to his disciples by the title Mahavira Jain (the Victorious Great Hero). His followers were known as the Bond-Free Ones (Nigantha) and the religion he founded came to be known as Jainism. Nataputta was an older contemporary of the Buddha and already had many disciples by the time Buddhism began. Another important group of ascetics were the Ajivikas, founded by Makkhali Gossala. Ajivika ascetics went naked and taught that being good by refraining from evil was useless because everyone would eventually find salvation through the process of transmigration just as a ball of twine rolling along the ground will eventually unwind. The Ajivikas had many influential followers and supporters but the Buddha criticised them as the worst of all ascetics. Some of the other well known teachers of the time were Ajita of the hair blanket, Purana Kassapa, Pakudha Kaccayana and Sanjaya Belatthiputta, all of whose religions lasted only a few centuries and then petered out.

    « Xem chương trước «      « Sách này có 15 chương »       » Xem chương tiếp theo »
» Tải file Word về máy » - In chương sách này

_______________

MUA THỈNH KINH SÁCH PHẬT HỌC

DO NXB LIÊN PHẬT HỘI PHÁT HÀNH




Về mái chùa xưa


Quy nguyên trực chỉ


Người chết đi về đâu


Tư tưởng Tịnh Độ Tông

Mua sách qua Amazon sẽ được gửi đến tận nhà - trên toàn nước Mỹ, Canada, Âu châu và Úc châu.

XEM TRANG GIỚI THIỆU.






DONATION

Quý vị đang truy cập từ IP 35.172.136.29 và chưa ghi danh hoặc đăng nhập trên máy tính này. Nếu là thành viên, quý vị chỉ cần đăng nhập một lần duy nhất trên thiết bị truy cập, bằng email và mật khẩu đã chọn.
Chúng tôi khuyến khích việc ghi danh thành viên ,để thuận tiện trong việc chia sẻ thông tin, chia sẻ kinh nghiệm sống giữa các thành viên, đồng thời quý vị cũng sẽ nhận được sự hỗ trợ kỹ thuật từ Ban Quản Trị trong quá trình sử dụng website này.
Việc ghi danh là hoàn toàn miễn phí và tự nguyện.

Ghi danh hoặc đăng nhập

Thành viên đang online:
Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Pascal Bui Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Nguyên Ngọc Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn tuấn phương Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Huệ Trí 1975 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Khoanguyen7654 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Minh Hữu Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn le duy hoang Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Le Hoang Khiem Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Trần Thị Huyền Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Tâm Tịnh Minh Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Trầm Minh Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Hạnh Ngọc CPM Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn TCPH Nam Định Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Diệu Bảo Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Van Tran Thu Huyen Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn từ điển hán việt Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Aslie Tran Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Viên Hiếu Thành Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Tánh Không 1965 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Phan Huy Triều Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Vạn Phúc Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Nhị Kim Uyên Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Minh Pháp Tự Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Lê Kiên VTV3 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn lamtrinh Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn tony coi Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Phù Duy Học Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Nam1956 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn van chương Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Nguyên Lê Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn ba tau phu Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Nguyễn Ngọc Định Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Minhkhang2110 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Ngọc Châu Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Thích Thện Tâm Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn nmtst94 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Bá láp Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Trương Quang Quý Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn phatthanhle Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Thích Nguyên Mạnh ... ...

Việt Nam (1.046 lượt xem) - Trung Hoa (46 lượt xem) - Ma-cao (8 lượt xem) - Hoa Kỳ (5 lượt xem) - Nhật Bản (4 lượt xem) - Romania (3 lượt xem) - Anh quốc (2 lượt xem) - Senegal (1 lượt xem) - ... ...