Thường tự xét lỗi mình, đừng nói lỗi người khác. Kinh Đại Bát Niết-bàn
Lời nói được thận trọng, tâm tư khéo hộ phòng, thân chớ làm điều ác, hãy giữ ba nghiệp tịnh, chứng đạo thánh nhân dạyKinh Pháp Cú (Kệ số 281)
Do ái sinh sầu ưu,do ái sinh sợ hãi; ai thoát khỏi tham ái, không sầu, đâu sợ hãi?Kinh Pháp Cú (Kệ số 212)
Nay vui, đời sau vui, làm phước, hai đời vui.Kinh Pháp Cú (Kệ số 16)
Sự nguy hại của nóng giận còn hơn cả lửa dữ. Kinh Lời dạy cuối cùng
Người ta vì ái dục sinh ra lo nghĩ; vì lo nghĩ sinh ra sợ sệt. Nếu lìa khỏi ái dục thì còn chi phải lo, còn chi phải sợ?Kinh Bốn mươi hai chương
Ai sống một trăm năm, lười nhác không tinh tấn, tốt hơn sống một ngày, tinh tấn tận sức mình.Kinh Pháp cú (Kệ số 112)
Khó thay được làm người, khó thay được sống còn. Khó thay nghe diệu pháp, khó thay Phật ra đời!Kinh Pháp Cú (Kệ số 182)
Ai sống quán bất tịnh, khéo hộ trì các căn, ăn uống có tiết độ, có lòng tin, tinh cần, ma không uy hiếp được, như núi đá, trước gió.Kinh Pháp cú (Kệ số 8)
Với kẻ kiên trì thì không có gì là khó, như dòng nước chảy mãi cũng làm mòn tảng đá.Kinh Lời dạy cuối cùng

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Kinh Trường Bộ (Dīgha Nikāya) »» 33. Kinh Phúng Tụng


Sangīti sutta

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Dịch giả: Maurice Walshe

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[207] 1.1. THUS HAVE I HEARD. Once the Lord was touring in the Malla country with a large company of about five hundred monks. Arrived at Pāvā, the Mallas’ capital, he stayed in the mango-grove of Cunda the smith.1012

1.2. Now at that time a new meeting-hall of the Mallas of Pāvā, called Ubbhaṭaka,1013 had recently been built, and it had not yet been occupied by any ascetic or Brahmin, or indeed by any human being.

Hearing that the Lord was staying in Cunda’s mango-grove, the Mallas of Pāvā went to see him. Having saluted him, they sat down to one side and said:

‘Lord, the Mallas of Pāvā have recently erected a new meeting-hall called Ubbhataka, and it has not yet been occupied by any ascetic or Brahmin, or indeed by any human being. [208] May the Blessed Lord be the first to use it! Should he do so, that would be for the lasting good and happiness of the Mallas of Pāvā.’

And the Lord consented by silence.

1.3. Noting his assent, the Mallas rose, saluted him, passed out to his right and went to the meeting-hall. They spread mats all round, arranged seats, put out a water-pot and an oil-lamp, and then, returning to the Lord, saluted him, sat down to one side and reported what they had done, saying:

‘Whenever the Blessed Lord is ready.’

1.4. Then the Lord dressed, took his robe and bowl, and went to the meeting-hall with his monks. There he washed his feet, entered the hall and sat down against the central pillar, facing east. The monks, having washed their feet, entered the hall and sat down along the western wall facing east, [209] with the Lord in front of them. The Pāvā Mallas washed their feet, entered the hall, and sat down along the eastern wall facing west, with the Lord in front of them.

Then the Lord spoke to the Mallas on Dhamma till far into the night, instructing, inspiring, firing and delighting them. Then he dismissed them, saying:

‘Vāseṭṭhas,1014 the night has passed away.1015 Now do as you think fit.’

‘Very good, Lord’, replied the Mallas. And they got up, saluted the Lord, and went out, passing him by on the right.

1.5. As soon as the Mallas had gone the Lord, surveying the monks sitting silently all about, said to the Venerable Sāriputta:

‘The monks are free from sloth-and-torpor,1016 Sāriputta. You think of a discourse on Dhamma to give to them. My back aches, I want to stretch it.’

‘Very good, Lord’, replied Sāriputta.

Then the Lord, having folded his robe in four, lay down on his right side in the lion-posture,1017 with one foot on the other, mindful and clearly aware, and bearing in mind the time to arise.

1.6. Now at that time the Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta [210] had just died at Pāvā. And at his death the Nigaṇṭhas were split into two parties, quarrelling and disputing... (as Sutta 29, verse 1).

You would have thought they were bent on killing each other. Even the white-robed lay followers were disgusted when they saw that their doctrine and discipline was so ill-proclaimed,... having been proclaimed by one not fully-enlightened and now with its support gone, without an arbiter.

1.7. And the Venerable Sāriputta addressed the monks, referring to this situation, and said:

‘So ill-proclaimed was their teaching and discipline, so unedifyingly displayed, and so ineffectual in calming the passions, having been proclaimed by one who was not fully enlightened. [211]

But, friends, this Dhamma has been well proclaimed by the Lord, the fully-enlightened One.

And so we should all recite it together 1018 without disagreement, so that this holy life may be enduring and established for a long time, thus to be for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.

And what is this Dhamma that has been well proclaimed by the Lord...?



‘There is one thing that was perfectly proclaimed by the Lord who knows and sees, the fully-enlightened Buddha. So we should all recite together... for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.



1.8. ‘What is this one thing?1019 (eko dhammo).

(1) ‘All beings are maintained by nutriment āhāratthitikā).

(2) ‘All beings are maintained by conditions (sankhdratthitikā).’1020 [212]





1.9. ‘There are [sets of] two things that were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...

Which are they?

(1) ‘Mind and body (nāmañ ca rūpañ ca).

(2) ‘Ignorance and craving for existence (avijjā ca bhavataṇhā ca).

(3) ‘Belief in [continued] existence and belief in non-existence (bhava-ditthi ca vibhava-diṭṭhi ca).

(4) ‘Lack of moral shame and lack of moral dread (ahirikañ ca anottappan ca).

(5) ‘Moral shame and moral dread (hiri ca ottappañ ca).

(6) ‘Roughness and friendship with evil (dovacassatā ca pāpamittata ca).

(7) ‘Gentleness and friendship with good (sovacassatā ca kalyānamittatā ca).

(8) ‘Skill in [knowing] offences and [the procedure for] rehabilitation from them (āpatti-kusalatā ca āpatti-vuṭṭhāna-kusalatā ca).

(9) ‘Skill in entering and returning from [jhāna] (samāpattikusalatā ca samāpatti-vuṭṭhāna-kusalatā ca). 1021

(10) ‘Skill in [knowing] the [eighteen] elements 1022 and in paying attention to them (dhātu-kusalatā ca manasikāra-kusala-ta ca).

(11) ‘Skill in [knowing] the [twelve] sense-spheres (āyatanak.) and dependent origination.

(12) ‘Skill in [knowing] what are causes and what are not (ṭhāna-k. ca aṭṭhāna-k.) [213]

(13) ‘Straightforwardness and modesty (ajjavañ ca lajjavañ ca).1023

(14) ‘Patience and gentleness (khanti ca soraccañ ca).

(15) ‘Gentle speech and politeness (sākhalyañ ca paṭisanthāro ca).

(16) ‘Non-harming and purity (avihi̇ṁsā ca soceyyañ ca).1024

(17) ‘Lack of mindfulness1025 and of clear awareness (muṭṭhasaccañ ca asampajaññañ ca).

(18) ‘Mindfulness and clear awareness (sati ca sampajaññañ ca).

(19) ‘Unguarded sense-doors and non-restraint in eating (indriyesu aguttadvāratā ca bhojane amattaññutā ca).

(20) ‘Guarded sense-doors and restraint in eating (... guttadvāratā... mattaññutā).

(21) ‘Powers of reflection1026 and mental development (paṭisankhāna-balañ ca bhāvanā-balañ ca).

(22) ‘Powers of mindfulness and concentration (sati-balañ ca samādhi-balañ ca).

(23) ‘Calm and insight (samatho ca vipassanā ca).1027

(24) ‘The sign of calm and grasping the sign (samatha-nimittañ ca paggaha-nimittañ ca).

(25) ‘Exertion and non-distraction (paggaho ca avikheppo ca).

(26) ‘Attainment of morality and [right] view (sīla-sampadā ca diṭṭhi-sampadā ca).

[214] (27) ‘Failure of morality and view (sīla-vipatti ca diṭṭhivipatti ca).

(28) ‘Purity of morality and view (sīla-visuddhi ca diṭṭhi-visuddhi ca).

(29) ‘Purity of view and the effort to attain it (diṭṭhi-visuddhi kho pana yathā diṭṭhissa ca padhānaṁ).

(30) ‘Being moved to a sense of urgency1028 by what should move one, and the systematic effort of one so moved (saṁvego ca saṁvejaniyesu ṭhānesu saṁviggassa ca yoniso padhānaṁ).

(31) ‘Not being content with wholesome acts and not shrinking from exertion (asantutthitā ca kusalesu dhammesu appaṭiv ānitā ca padhānasmiṁ).

(32) ‘Knowledge and liberation (vijjā ca vimutti ca).

(33) ‘Knowledge of the destruction [of the defilements] and of [their] non-recurrence (khaye ñiṇaṁ anuppāde ñānaṁ).

‘These are the [sets of] two things that were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord... So we should all recite them together...’



1.10. ‘There are [sets of] three things...

Which are they?

(1) ‘Three unwholesome roots: of greed, hatred, delusion (lobho akusala-mūlaṁ, doso akusala-mūlaṁ, moho akusala-mūlaṁ).

(2) ‘Three wholesome roots: of non-greed, non-hatred non-delusion (alobho...).

(3) ‘Three kinds of wrong conduct: in body, speech and thought (kāya-duccaritaṁ, vacī-duccaritaṁ, mano-duccaritaṁ). [215]

(4) ‘Three kinds of right conduct: in body, speech and thought (kāya-sucaritaṁ...).

(5) ‘Three kinds of unwholesome thought (akusala-vitakkā): of sensuality, of enmity, of cruelty (kāma-vitakko, vyāpādavitakko, vihiṁsa-vitakko).

(6) ‘Three kinds of wholesome thought: of renunciation (nekkhamma-vitakko), of non-enmity, of non-cruelty.

(7) ‘Three kinds of unwholesome motivation (sankappa):1029 through sensuality, enmity, cruelty.

(8) ‘Three kinds of wholesome motivation: through renunciation (nekkhamma), non-enmity, non-cruelty.

(9) ‘Three kinds of unwholesome perception (saññā): of sensuality, of enmity, of cruelty.

(10) ‘Three kinds of wholesome perception: of renunciation, of non-enmity, of non-cruelty.

(11) ‘Three unwholesome elements (dhātuyo): sensuality, enmity, cruelty.

(12) ‘Three wholesome elements: renunciation, non-enmity, non-cruelty.

(13) ‘Three more elements: the element of sense-desire,1030 the element of form, the formless element (kāma-dhātu, rūpadhātu, arūpa-dhātu).

(14) ‘Three more elements: the element of form, the formless element, the element of cessation1031 (rūpa-dhūtu, arūpa-dhātu, nirodha-dhātu).

(15) ‘Three more elements: the low element, the middling element, the sublime element (hīnā dhātu, majjhimā dhātu, paṇītā dhātu). [216]

(16) ‘Three kinds of craving: sensual craving, craving for becoming,1032 craving for extinction1033 (kāma-taṇhā, bhavataṇhā, vibhava-taṇhā).

(17) ‘Three more kinds of craving: craving for [the World of] Sense-Desires, for [the World of] Form, for the Formless [World] (kāma-taṇhā, rūpa-taṇhā, arūpa-taṇhā).

(18) ‘Three more kinds of craving: for [the World of] Form, for the Formless [World], for cessation (as for (14)).

(19) ‘Three fetters (saṁyojanāni): of personality-belief, of doubt, of attachment to rite and ritual (sakkāya-diṭṭhi, vicikicchā, sīabbata-parāmāso).

(20) ‘Three corruptions (āsavā): of sense-desire, of becoming, of ignorance (kāmāsavo, bhavāsavo, avijjāsavo).

(21) ‘Three kinds of becoming: [in the World] of Sense-Desire, of Form, in the Formless World (kāma-bhavo, rūpa-bhavo, arūpa-bhavo).

(22) ‘Three quests: for sense-desires, for becoming, for the holy life (kāmesanā, bhavesanā, brahmacariyesanā).

(23) ‘Three forms of conceit: “I am better than... ”, “I am equal to...”, “I am worse than...” (“seyyo ‘ham asmīti” vidhā, “sadiso ‘ham asmīti” vidhā, “hīno ‘ham asmīti” vidhā).

(24) ‘Three times: past, future, present (atīto addhā, anāgato addhā, paccuppanno addhā).

(25) ‘Three “ends” (antd):1034 personality, its arising, its cessation (sakkāya anto, sakkāya-samudayo anto, sakkāya-nirodho anto).

(26) ‘Three feelings: pleasant, painful, neither (sukhā vedanā, dukkhā vedanā, adukkham-asukhā vedanā).

(27) ‘Three kinds of suffering: as pain, as inherent in formations, as due to change (dukkha-dukkhatā, sankhāra-dukkhatā, viparināma-dukkhatā). [217]

(28) ‘Three accumulations: evil with fixed result,1035 good with fixed result,1036 indeterminate (micchatta-niyato rāsi, sammatta-niyato rāsi, aniyato-rāsi).

(29) ‘Three obscurations (tamā):1037 One hesitates (kankhati), vacillates (vicikicchati), is undecided (nādhimuccati), is unsettled (na sampasīdati) about the past, the future, the present.

(30) ‘Three things a Tathagata has no need to guard against: A Tathagata is perfectly pure in bodily conduct, in speech and in thought (parisuddha-kāya-, -vacī-, -mano-samācāro). There is no misdeed of body, speech or thought which he must conceal lest anyone should get to hear about it.

(31) ‘Three obstacles:1038 lust, hatred, delusion (rāgo kiñcanaṁ, dosa kiñcanaṁ, moho kiñcanaṁ).

(32) ‘Three fires: lust, hatred, delusion (rāgaggi, dosaggi, mohaggi).

(33) ‘Three more fires: the fire of those to be revered, of the householder, of those worthy of offerings1039 (āhuneyyaggi, gahapataggi, dakkhineyyaggi).

(34) ‘Threefold classification of matter: visible and resisting, invisible and resisting, invisible and unresisting1040 (sanidassana-sappaṭighaṁ rūpaṁ, anidassana-sappatighaṁ rūpaṁ, anidassana-appaṭighaṁ rūpaṁ).

(35) ‘Three kinds of karmic formation:1041 meritorious, demeritorious, imperturbable1042 (puññābhisankhāro, apuññābhisankhāro, āneñjābhisankhāro). [218]

(36) ‘Three persons: the learner, the non-learner, the one who is neither1043 (sekho puggalo, asekho puggalo, n’eva sekho nāsekho puggalo).

(37) ‘Three elders: an elder by birth, in Dhamma, by convention 1044 (jāti-thero, dhamma-thero, sammuti-thero).

(38) ‘Three grounds based on merit: that of giving, of morality, of meditation (dānamayaṁ puñña-kiriya-vatthu, sīlamayaṁ puñña-kiriya-vatthu, bhāvanāmaya puñña-kiriya-vatthu).

(39) ‘Three grounds for reproof: based on what has been seen, heard, suspected (diṭṭhena, sutena, parisankāya).

(40) ‘Three kinds of rebirth in the Realm of Sense-Desire (kāmupapattiyo):1045 There are beings who desire what presents itself to them (paccuppaṭṭhita-kāmā), and are in the grip of that desire, such as human beings, some devas, and some in states of woe.

There are beings who desire what they have created (nimmita-kāmā),... such as the devas Who Rejoice in Their Own Creation (Nimmānaratī).

There are beings who rejoice in the creations of others,... such as the devas Having Power over Others’ Creation (Paranimmita-vasavattī).

(41) ‘Three happy rebirths (sukhupapattiyo):1046 There are beings who, having continually produced happiness now dwell in happiness, such as the devas of the Brahma group.

There are beings who are overflowing with happiness, drenched with it, full of it, immersed in it, so that they occasionally exclaim: “Oh what bliss!” such as the Radiant devas (Ābhassarā).

There are beings... immersed in happiness, who, supremely blissful, [219] experience only perfect happiness, such as the Lustrous devas (Subhakiṇṇā).

(42) ‘Three kinds of wisdom: of the learner, of the non-learner, of the one who is neither (as (36)).

(43) ‘Three more kinds of wisdom: based on thought, on learning [hearing], on mental development [meditation] (cintāmaya pañña, sutamayā paññd, bhāvanāmaya pañña).

(44) ‘Three armaments1047 (āvudhāni): what one has learnt, detachment, wisdom (sutāvudhaṁ, pavivekāvudhaṁ, paññāvudhariv).

(45) ‘Three faculties:1048 of knowing that one will know the unknown, of highest knowledge, of the one who knows (anaññātaṁ-ñassāmîtindriyaṁ, aññindriyaṁ, aññātā-v-indriyaṁ).

(46) ‘Three eyes: the fleshly eye, the divine eye,1049 the eye of wisdom1050 (maṁsa-cakkhu, dibba-cakkhu, paññā-cakkhu).

(47) ‘Three kinds of training: in higher morality, higher thought, higher wisdom (adhisīla-sikkhā, adhicitta-sikkhā, adhipannd-sikkhd).

(48) ‘Three kinds of development: of the emotions,1051 of mind, of wisdom (kāya-bhāvana, citta-bhāvanā, paññā-bhāvanā).

(49) ‘Three “unsurpassables”: of vision, of practice, of liberation (dassanānuttariyaṁ, paṭipadānuttariyaṁ, vimuttānuttariyaṁ).

(50) ‘Three kinds of concentration: with thinking and pondering, 1052 with pondering without thinking, with neither (savitakko savicāro samādhi, avitakko vicāra-matto samādhi, avitakko avicāro samādhi).

(51) ‘Three more kinds of concentration: on emptiness, the “signless”, desireless (suññato samādhi, animitto samādhi, appanihito samādhi).

(52) ‘Three purities: of body, speech, mind (kāya-socceyyaṁ, vacī-socceyyaṁ, mano-socceyyaṁ). [220]

(53) ‘Three qualities of the sage:1053 as to body, speech, mind (kāya-moneyyaṁ, vacī-moneyyaṁ, mano-moneyyaṁ).

(54) ‘Three skills: in going forward,1054 in going down, in means to progress (āya-kosallaṁ, apāya-kosallaṁ, upāya-kosallaṁ).

(55) ‘Three intoxications: with health, with youth, with life (ārogya-mado, yobbana-mado, jīvita-mado).

(56) ‘Three predominant influences: oneself, the world, the Dhamma (attādhipateyyaṁ, lokādhipateyyaṁ, dhammādhipateyyaṁ).

(57) ‘Three topics of discussion: Talk may be of the past: “That’s how it used to be”; of the future: “That’s how it will be”; of the present: “That’s how it is now.”

(58) ‘Three knowledges: of one’s past lives, of the decease and rebirth of beings, of the destruction of the corruptions (pubbenivāsānussati-ñāṇaṁ vijjā, sattānaṁ cutupapāte ñāṇaṁ vijjā, āsavānaṁ khaye ñāṇaṁ vijjā).

(59) ‘Three abidings: deva-abiding, Brahmā-abiding, the Ariyan abiding1055 (dibbo vihāro, Brahmā-vihāro, ariyo vihāro).

(60) ‘Three miracles:1056 of psychic power, of telepathy, of instruction (iddhi-pāṭihāriyaṁ, ādesanā-pātihāriyaṁ, anusāsanipāṭihāriyaṁ).

‘These are the [sets of] three things... So we should all recite together... for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.’ [221]



1.11. ‘There are [sets of] four things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...

(1) ‘Four foundations of mindfulness:

Here a monk abides contemplating body as body, ardent, clearly aware and mindful, having put aside hankering and fretting for the world;

he abides contemplating feelings as feelings...;

he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects, ardent, clearly aware and mindful, having put aside hankering and fretting for the world.

(2) ‘Four great efforts (sammappadhānā):

Here a monk rouses his will, makes an effort, stirs up energy, exerts his mind and strives to prevent the arising of unarisen evil unwholesome mental states.

He rouses his will... and strives to overcome evil unwholesome mental states that have arisen.

He rouses his will... and strives to produce unarisen wholesome mental states.

He rouses his will...and strives to maintain wholesome mental states that have arisen, not to let them fade away, to bring them to greater growth, to the full perfection of development.

(3) ‘Four roads to power (iddhipādā):

Here a monk develops concentration of intention accompanied by effort of will,

concentration of energy,... [222]

concentration of consciousness,

and concentration of investigation accompanied by effort of will.

(4) ‘Four jhānas:

Here a monk, detached from all sense-desires, detached from unwholesome mental states, enters and remains in the first jhāna, which is with thinking and pondering, born of detachment, filled with delight and joy.

And with the subsiding of thinking and pondering, by gaining inner tranquillity and oneness of mind, he enters and remains in the second jhāna, which is without thinking and pondering, born of concentration, filled with delight and joy.

And with the fading away of delight, remaining imperturbable, mindful and clearly aware, he experiences in himself that joy of which the Noble Ones say: “Happy is he who dwells with equanimity and mindfulness”, he enters and remains in the third jhāna.

And, having given up pleasure and pain, and with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness, he enters and remains in the fourth jhāna which is beyond pleasure and pain, and purified by equanimity and mindfulness.

(5) ‘Four concentrative meditations (samādhi-bhāvanā).

This meditation, when developed and expanded, leads to (a) happiness here and now (ditthadhamma-sukha) (b) gaining knowledge-and-vision (ñāṇa-dassana-paṭilābha), (c) mindfulness and clear awareness (sati-sampajañña), and (d) the destruction of the corruptions (āsavānaṁ khaya).

(a) How does this practice lead to happiness here and now? Here, a monk practises the four jhānas. [223]

(b) How does it lead to the gaining of knowledge-and-vision? Here, a monk attends to the perception of light (ālokasaññaṁ manasikaroti), he fixes his mind to the perception of day, by night as by day, by day as by night. In this way, with a mind clear and unclouded, he develops a state of mind that is full of brightness (sappabhāsam cittaṁ).

(c) How does it lead to mindfulness and clear awareness? Here, a monk knows feelings as they arise, remain and vanish; he knows perceptions as they arise, remain and vanish; he knows thoughts (vitakkā)1057 as they arise, remain and vanish.

(d) How does this practice lead to the destruction of the corruptions? Here, a monk abides in the contemplation of the rise and fall of the five aggregates of grasping (pañc’upādānakkhandesu udayabbayānupassi): “This is material form, this is its arising, this is its ceasing; these are feelings...; this is perception...; these are the mental formations...; this is consciousness, this is its arising, this is its ceasing.”

(6) ‘Four boundless states.

Here, a monk, with a heart filled with loving-kindness, pervades first one quarter, then the second, the third and the fourth. Thus he stays, [224] spreading the thought of loving-kindness above, below and across, everywhere, always with a heart filled with loving-kindness, abundant, magnified, unbounded, without hatred or ill-will.

And likewise with compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity.

(7) ‘Four formless jhānas. Here, a monk,

by passing entirely beyond bodily sensations, by the disappearance of all sense of resistance and by non-attraction to the perception of diversity, seeing that space is infinite, reaches and remains in the Sphere of Infinite Space.

And by passing entirely beyond the Sphere of Infinite Space, seeing that consciousness is infinite, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness.

And by passing entirely beyond the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, seeing that there is no thing, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of No-Thingness.

And by passing entirely beyond the Sphere of No-Thingness, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception.

(8) ‘Four supports 1058 (apassenāni): Here a monk judges that one thing is to be pursued, one thing endured, one thing avoided, one thing suppressed.

(9) ‘Four Ariyan lineages (ariya-υaṁsā). Here, a monk

(a) is content with any old robe, praises such contentment, and does not try to obtain robes improperly or unsuitably. He does not worry if he does not get a robe, and if he does, he is not full of greedy, blind desire, but makes use of it, aware of [such] dangers and wisely aware of its true purpose. Nor is he conceited about being thus content with any old robe, and he does not disparage others.

And one who is thus skilful, not lax, clearly aware and mindful, [225] is known as a monk who is true to the ancient, original (aggaññe) Ariyan lineage.

Again, (b) a monk is content with any alms-food he may get...

Again, (c) a monk is content with any old lodging-place ...

And again, (d) a monk, being fond of abandoning (pahāna), rejoices in abandoning, and being fond of developing (bhāυanā), rejoices in developing, is not therefore conceited... And one who is thus skilful, not lax, clearly aware and mindful, is known as a monk who is true to the ancient, original Ariyan lineage.

(10) ‘Four efforts: The effort of (a) restraint (saṁυara-padhānaṁ), (b) abandoning (pahāna-p.), (c) development (bhāυanāp), (d) preservation (anurakkhana-p.).

What is (a) the effort of restraint? Here, a monk, on seeing an object with the eye, does not grasp at the whole or its details, striving to restrain [226] what might cause evil, unwholesome states, such as hankering or sorrow, to flood in on him. Thus he watches over the sense of sight and guards it (similarly with sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations, thoughts).

What is (b) the effort of abandoning? Here, a monk does not assent to a thought of lust, of hatred, of cruelty that has arisen, but abandons it, dispels it, destroys it, makes it disappear.

What is (c) the effort of development? Here, a monk develops the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness, based on solitude, detachment, extinction, leading to maturity of surrender (vossagga-parināmiṁ); he develops the enlightenment-factor of investigation of states, ... of energy, ... of delight, ... of tranquillity, ... of concentration, ... of equanimity, based on solitude, detachment, extinction, leading to maturity of surrender.

What is (d) the effort of preservation? Here, a monk keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration which has arisen, such as a skeleton, or a corpse that is full of worms, blue-black, full of holes, bloated.

(11) ‘Four knowledges: knowledge of Dhamma, of what is consonant with it (anvaye ñānaṁ), knowledge of others’ minds1059 (paricce ñānaṁ), conventional knowledge1060 (sammuti-ñānaṁ).

(12) [227] ‘Four more knowledges: knowledge of suffering, its origin, its cessation, the path.

(13) ‘Four factors of Stream-Attainment (sotāpattiyangāni): association with good people (sappurisa-saṁseva),hearing the true Dhamma, thorough attention (yoniso manasikāra), practice of the Dhamma in its entirety (dhammānudhamma-patipatti).

(14) ‘Four characteristics of a Stream-Winner:

Here, the Ariyan disciple is possessed of unwavering confidence in the Buddha, thus: “This Blessed Lord is an Arahant, a fully-enlightened Buddha, endowed with wisdom and conduct, the Well-Farer, Knower of the worlds, incomparable Trainer of men to be tamed, Teachers of gods and humans, enlightened and blessed.”

(b) He is possessed of unwavering confidence in the Dhamma, thus: “Well-proclaimed by the Lord is the Dhamma, visible here and now, timeless, inviting inspection, leading onward, to be comprehended by the wise each one for himself.”

(c) He is possessed of unwavering confidence in the Sangha, thus: “Well-directed is the Sangha of the Lord’s disciples, of upright conduct, on the right path, on the perfect path; that is to say the four pairs of persons, the eight kinds of men. The Sangha of the Lord’s disciples is worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy of veneration, an unsurpassed field of merit in the world.” And

(d) he is possessed of morality dear to the Noble Ones, unbroken, without defect, unspotted, without inconsistency, liberating, praised by the wise, uncorrupted, and conducive to concentration.

(15) ‘Four fruits of the ascetic life: the fruits of Stream-Entry, of the Once-Returner, of the Non-Returner, of Arahantship. [228]

(16) ‘Four elements: the elements of “earth”, “water”, “fire”, “air” (pathaυῑ-, āpo-, tejo-, vāyo-dhātu).

(17) ‘Four nutriments (āhārā): “material”1061 (kabalinkāra) food, gross or subtle; 1062 contact as second; mental volition (manosañcetanā)1063 as third; consciousness as fourth.

(18) ‘Four stations of consciousness (viññāna-tthitiyo): Consciousness gains a footing either (a) in relation to materiality, with materiality as object and basis, as a place of enjoyment, or similarly in regard to (b) feelings, (c) perceptions or (d) mental formations, and there it grows, increases and flourishes.

(19) ‘Four ways of going wrong (agata-gamanāni): One goes wrong through desire (chanda),1064 hatred, delusion, fear.

(20) ‘Four arousals of craving: Craving arises in a monk because of robes, alms, lodging, being and non-being1065 (iti-bhavābhava-hetu).

(21) ‘Four kinds of progress: (a) painful progress with slow comprehension, (b) painful progress with quick comprehension, (c) pleasant progress with slow comprehension, (d) pleasant progress with quick comprehension. 1066[229]

(22) ‘Four more kinds of progress: progress with impatience (akkhamā paṭipadā), (b) patient progress (khamā p.), (c) controlled progress (damā p.), (d) calm progress (samā paṭipadā) .1067

(23) ‘Four ways of Dhamma:1068 (a) without hankering, (b) without enmity, (c) with right mindfulness, (d) with right concentration.

(24) ‘Four ways of undertaking Dhamma: There is the way that is (a) painful in the present and brings painful future results (dukkha-vipākarṁ), (b) painful in the present and brings pleasant future results (sukha-vipākaṁ), (c) pleasant in the present and brings painful future results, and (d) pleasant in the present and brings pleasant future results.

(25) ‘Four divisions of Dhamma: morality, concentration, wisdom, liberation.

(26) ‘Four powers:1069 energy, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom.

(27) ‘Four kinds of resolve (adhiṭṭhānāni): [to gain] (a) wisdom, (b) truth (sacca),1070 (c) relinquishment (cāga), (d) tranquility (upasama).1071

(28) ‘Four ways of answering questions: the question (a) to be answered directly (ekaṁsa-vyākaraṇiyo pañho), (b) requiring an explanation (vibhajja-v. p.), (c) requiring a counter-question (paṭipucchā-v. p.), (d) to be set aside (ṭhāpanīyo pañha). [230]

(29) ‘Four kinds of kamma: There is (a) black kamma with black result (kaṇha-vipākaṁ), (b) bright kamma with bright result (sukka-v.), (c) black-and-bright kamma with black-and-bright result (kaṇha-sukka v.), (d) kamma that is neither black nor bright (akaṇham-asukkaṁ), with neither black nor bright result, leading to the destruction of kamma.1072

(30) ‘Four things to be realised by seeing (sacchikaraṇīyā dhammā):1073 (a) former lives, to be realised by recollection (satiyā),1074 (b) passing-away and rearising to be realised by the [divine] eye,1075 (c) the eight deliverances, to be realized with the mental body (kāyena),1076 (d) the destruction of the corruptions, to be realised by wisdom.

(31) ‘Four floods (oghā): sensuality, becoming, [wrong] views, ignorance.

(32) ‘Four yokes (yogā)1077 (= (31)).

(33) ‘Four “unyokings” (visaṁyogā): from sensuality, becoming, views, ignorance.

(34) ‘Four ties (ganthā):1078 the “body-tie”1079 (kāya-gantha) of hankering (abhijjhā), ill-will (vyāpāda), attachment to rite and ritual (sīlabbata-parāmāsa), dogmatic fanaticism (idaṁ-saccābhinivesa).

(35) ‘Four clingings (upādānāni): to sensuality, to views (ditthi), to rules and ritual (sīlabbata-pārāmāsa), to ego-belief (attavāda).

(36) ‘Four kinds of generation: 1080 from an egg, from a womb, from moisture,1081 spontaneous rebirth (opapātika-yoni).1082 [231]

(37) ‘Four ways of descent into the womb:

(a) One descends into the mother’s womb unknowing, stays there unknowing, and leaves it unknowing;

(b) one enters the womb knowing, stays there unknowing, and leaves it unknowing;

(c) one enters the womb knowing, stays there knowing, and leaves it unknowing;

(d) one enters the womb knowing, stays there knowing, and leaves it knowing (as Sutta 28, verse 5).

(38) ‘Four ways of getting a new personality (attabhāva-paṭilābhā):1083 There is an acquisition of personality that is brought about by (a) one’s own volition, not another’s, (b) another’s volition, not one’s own, (c) both, (d) neither.

(39) ‘Four purifications of offerings (dakkhiṇā-visuddhiyo): there is the offering purified (a) by the giver but not by the recipient, (b) by the recipient but not by the giver, (c) by neither, [232] (d) by both.

(40) ‘Four bases of sympathy (saṁgaha-vatthūni); generosity, pleasing speech, beneficial conduct and impartiality.

(41) ‘Four un-Ariyan modes of speech: lying, slander, abuse, idle gossip.

(42) ‘Four Ariyan modes of speech: refraining from lying, slander, abuse, idle gossip.

(43) ‘Four more un-Ariyan modes of speech: claiming to have seen, heard, sensed (muta),1084 known what one has not seen, heard, sensed, known.

(44) ‘Four more Ariyan modes of speech: stating that one has not seen, heard, sensed, known what one has not seen, heard sensed, known.

(45) ‘Four more un-Ariyan modes of speech: claiming not to have seen, heard, sensed, known what one has seen, heard, sensed, known.

(46) ‘Four more Ariyan modes of speech: stating that one has seen, heard, sensed, known what one has seen, heard, sensed, known.

(47) ‘Four persons: Here a certain man (a) torments himself (attan-tapo hoti), is given to self-tormenting, (b) torments others (paran-tapo hoti),... (c) torments himself and others,... (d) torments neither himself nor others ... Thereby [233] he dwells in this life without craving, released (nibbuto), cool, enjoying bliss, become as Brahma (brahma-bhūtena).1085

(48) ‘Four more persons: Here a man’s life benefits (a) himself but not others, (b) others but not himself,1086 (c) neither, (d) both.

(49) ‘Four more persons: (a) living in darkness and bound for darkness (tamo tamaparāyana), (c) living in darkness and bound for the light (tamo jotiparāyana), (c) living in the light and bound for darkness, (d) living in the light and bound for the light.

(50) ‘Four more persons: (a) the unshakeable ascetic (samaṇam-acalo), (b) the “blue-lotus” ascetic, (c) the “white-lotus” ascetic, (d) the subtly-perfect ascetic (samana-sukhumālo).1087

‘These are the [sets of] four things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord ... So we should all recite them together... for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.

[End of first recitation-section]





2.1. ‘There are [sets of] five things perfectly proclaimed...

(1) ‘Five aggregates: body, feelings, perceptions, mental formations, consciousness.

(2) ‘Five aggregates of grasping (pancūpādāna-kkhandhā) (as (1)). [234]

(3) ‘Five strands of sense-desire (pañca kāma-guṇā): a sight seen by the eye, a sound heard by the ear, a smell smelt by the nose, a flavour tasted by the tongue, a tangible object felt by the body as being desirable, attractive, nice, charming, associated with lust and arousing passion.

(4) ‘Five [post-mortem] destinies (gatiyo): hell (nirayo),1088 animal-rebirth (tiracchāna-yoni),1089 the realm of hungry ghosts (petā), humankind, the deva world.

(5) ‘Five kinds of begrudging (macchariyāni):1090 as to dwelling-place, families,1091 gains, beauty (vaṇṇa), Dhamma.

(6) ‘Five hindrances: sensuality (kāmacchanda), ill-will (vyāpāda), sloth-and-torpor (thīna-middha), worry-and-flurry (uddhacca-kukkucca), sceptical doubt (vicikicchā).

(7) ‘Five lower fetters: personality-belief (sakkāya-diṭṭhi), doubt, attachment to rite and ritual (sīlabbata-parāmāsa), sensuality, ill-will.

(8) ‘Five higher fetters: craving for the world of form (rūparāga), craving for the formless world (arūpa-rāga),conceit (māna), restlessness (uddhacca), ignorance. [235]

(9) ‘Five rules of training (sikkhāpadāni): refraining from taking life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, lying speech, strong drink and sloth-producing drugs (surā-merayamajja-pamddaṭṭhānā).

(10) ‘Five impossible things: An Arahant is incapable of (a) deliberately taking the life of a living being; (b) taking what is not given so as to constitute theft; (c) sexual intercourse; (d) telling a deliberate lie; (e) storing up goods for sensual indulgence as he did formerly in the household life (as Sutta 29, verse 26).

(11) ‘Five kinds of loss (vyasanāni): Loss of relatives, wealth, health, morality, [right] view. No beings fall into an evil state, a hell-state ... after death because of loss or relatives, wealth or health; but beings do fall into such states by loss of morality and right view.

(12) ‘Five kinds of gain (sampadā): Gain of relatives, wealth, health, morality, [right] view. No beings arise in a happy, heavenly state after death because of the gain of relatives, wealth or health; but beings are reborn in such states because of gains in morality and right view.

(13) ‘Five dangers to the immoral through lapsing from morality: (as Sutta 16, verse 1.23). [236]











(14) ‘Five benefits to the moral through preserving morality: (as Sutta 16, verse 1.24).











(15) ‘Five points to be borne in mind by a monk wishing to rebuke another:

(a) I will speak at the proper time, not the wrong time,

(b) I will state the truth, not what is false,

(c) I will speak gently, not roughly,

(d) I will speak for his good, [237] not for his harm,

(e) I will speak with love in my heart, not with enmity.



(16) ‘Five factors of endeavour: Here, a monk (a) has faith, trusting in the enlightenment of the Tathāgata: “Thus this Blessed Lord is an Arahant, a fully-enlightened Buddha...” (as Sutta 3, verse 1.2),

(b) is in good health, suffers little distress or sickness, having a good digestion that is neither too cool nor too hot but of a middling temperature suitable for exertion,

(c) is not fraudulent or deceitful, showing himself as he really is to his teacher or to the wise among his companions in the holy life,

(d) keeps his energy constantly stirred up for abandoning unwholesome states and arousing wholesome states, and is steadfast, firm in advancing and persisting in wholesome states,

(e) is a man of wisdom, endowed with wisdom concerning rising and cessation, with the Ariyan penetration that leads to the complete destruction of suffering.

(17) ‘Five Pure Abodes (suddhāvāsā):1092 Aviha,1093 Unworried (Atappā), Clearly Visible (Sudassā), Clear-Sighted (Sudassī), Peerless (Akaniṭṭhā).

(18) ‘Five kinds of Non-Returner (anāgāmī):1094 the “less-than-half-timer”, the “more-than-half-timer”, the “gainer without exertion”, the “gainer with exertion”, “he who goes upstream to the highest”.

(19) ‘Five mental blockages (ceto-khīlā): Here, a monk has [238] doubts and hesitations

(a) about the Teacher, is dissatisfied and cannot settle in his mind. Thus his mind is not inclined towards ardour, devotion, persistence and effort;

(b) about the Dhamma ...; (c) about the Sangha ...; (d) about the training ...;

(e) he is angry and displeased with his fellows in the holy life, he feels depressed and negative towards them. Thus his mind is not inclined towards ardour, devotion, persistence and effort.

(20) ‘Five mental bondages (cetaso vinibandhā):1095Here, a monk has not got rid of the passion, desire, love, thirst (pipāsa),1096 fever, craving (taṇhā)

(a) for sense-desires (kāme): thus his mind is not inclined towards ardour, devotion, persistence and effort;

(b) for the body (kāye),...

(c) for physical objects (rūpe), ... or

(d) having eaten as much as his belly will hold, he abandons himself to the pleasure of lying down, of contact, of sloth; or

(e) [239] he practises the holy life for the sake of becoming a member of some body of devas (deva-nikāya), thinking: “By means of these rites or this discipline, this austerity or this holy life I shall become one of the devas, great or small.”



Thus his mind is not inclined towards ardour, devotion, persistence and effort.

(21) ‘Five faculties (indriyāni): the faculty of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body.

(22) ‘Five more faculties: pleasant [bodily] feeling (sukha), pain (dukkha), gladness (somanassa), sadness (domanassa), indifferent feeling (upekhā).

(23) ‘Five more faculties: faith (saddhā), energy, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom.

(24) ‘Five elements making for deliverance (nissaraṇīyā dhātuyo):

(a) Here, when a monk considers sense-desires, his mind does not leap forward and take satisfaction in them, fix on them or make free with them,1097 but when he considers renunciation it does leap forward, take satisfaction in it, fix on it, and make free with it. And he gets this thought [240] well-set, well-developed, well raised up, well freed and disconnected from sense-desires.

And thus he is freed from the corruptions (āsavā), the vexations and fevers that arise from sense-desires, and he does not feel that [sensual] feeling. This is called the deliverance from sense-desires.

And the same applies to (b) ill-will,

(c) cruelty,

(d) forms (rūpa),1098

(e) personality (sakkāya). [241]

(25) ‘Five bases of deliverance (vimuttāyatanāni):

Here, (a) the Teacher or a respected fellow-disciple teaches a monk Dhamma. And as he receives the teaching, he gains a grasp of both the spirit and the letter of the teaching. At this, joy arises in him, and from this joy, delight (pīti); and by this delight his senses are calmed, he feels happiness (sukhaṁ) as a result, and with this happiness his mind is established;1099

(b) he has not heard it thus, but in the course of teaching Dhamma to others he has learnt it by heart as he has heard it; or

(c) as he is chanting the Dhamma ...; or

(d) [24] ... when he applies his mind to the Dhamma, thinks and ponders over it and concentrates his attention on it (anupekkhati); or

(e) when he has properly grasped some concentration-sign (samādhi-nimittam), has well considered it, applied his mind to it (supadhāritaṁ), and has well penetrated it with wisdom (suppaṭividdhaṁ paññāya). At this, joy arises in him, and from this joy, delight; and by this delight his senses are calmed, [243] he feels happiness as a result, and with this happiness his mind is established.

(26) ‘Five perceptions making for maturity of liberation: the perception of impermanence (anicca-sañña), of suffering in impermanence (anicce dukkha-saññā), of impersonality in suffering (dukkhe anatta-saññā), of abandoning (pahāna-saññā), of dispassion (virāga-saññā).

‘These are the [sets of] five things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...’



2.2. ‘There are [sets of] six things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...

(1) ‘Six internal sense-spheres (ajjhattikāni āyatanāni): eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-(kāyāyatanaṁ), mind-sense-sphere (manāyatanaṁ).

(2) ‘Six external sense-spheres (bahirāni āyatanāni): sight-object (rūpāyatanaṁ), sound-, smell-, taste-, tangible object (phoṭṭabbāyatanaṁ), mind-object (dhammāyatanaṁ).

(3) ‘Six groups of consciousness (viññaṇa-kāyā): eye-consciousness, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-consciousness.

(4) ‘Six groups of contact (phassa-kāyā): eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-contact (mano-samphasso).

(5) ‘Six groups of feeling (vedanā-kāyā): feeling based on eye-contact (cakkhu-samphassajā vedanā), [244] on ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-contact.

(6) ‘Six groups of perception (saññā-kāyā): perception of sights (rūpa-saññā), of sounds, of smells, of tastes, of touches, of mind-objects (dhamma-saññā).

(7) ‘Six groups of volition (sañcetanā-kāyā): volition based on sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, mind-objects.

(8) ‘Six groups of craving (taṇhā-kāyā): craving for sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, mind-objects.

(9) ‘Six kinds of disrespect (agāravā): Here, a monks behaves disrespectfully and discourteously towards the Teacher, the Dhamma, the Sangha, the training, in respect of earnestness (appamāde), of hospitality (paṭisanthāre).

(10) ‘Six kinds of respect (gāravā): Here, a monk behaves respectfully... (as (9)).

(11) ‘Six pleasurable investigations (somanassūpavicārā):1100 When, on seeing a sight-object with the eye, on hearing..., smelling ... , tasting ... , touching .. , knowing a mind-object with the mind, one investigates a corresponding object productive of pleasure. [245]

(12) ‘Six unpleasurable investigations: (as (11) but: productive of displeasure).

(13) ‘Six indifferent investigations: (as (11) but: productive of indifference (upekhā).

(14) ‘Six things conducive to communal living (sārāṇīyā dhammā):1101 As long as monks both in public and in private show loving-kindness to their fellows in acts of body,

speech and

thought,...

share with their virtuous fellows whatever they receive as a rightful gift, including the contents of their alms-bowls, which they do not keep to themselves, ...

keep consistently, unbroken and unaltered those rules of conduct that are spotless, leading to liberation, praised by the wise, unstained and conducive to concentration, and persist therein with their fellows both in public and in private,... continue in that noble view that leads to liberation, to the utter destruction of suffering, remaining in such awareness with their fellows both in public and in private (as Sutta 16, verse 1.11). [246]



(15) ‘Six roots of contention (vivāda-mūlāni):

Here, (a) a monk is angry and bears ill-will, he is disrespectful and discourteous to the Teacher, the Dhamma and the Sangha, and does not finish his training. He stirs up contention within the Sangha, which brings woe and sorrow to many, with evil consequences, misfortune and sorrow for devas and humans. If, friends, you should discover such a root of contention among yourselves or among others, you should strive to get rid of just that root of contention. If you find no such root of contention..., then you should work to prevent its overcoming you in future. Or

(b) a monk is deceitful and malicious (makkhī hoti paḷāsī) ... ,

(c) a monk is envious and mean ... ,

(d) a monk is cunning and deceitful...,

(e) a monk is full of evil desires and wrong views...,

(f) a monk is opinionated (sandiṭṭhi-parāmāsī), obstinate and tenacious. [247]



If, friends, you should discover such a root of contention among yourselves or among others, you should strive to get rid of just that root of contention.

If you find no such root of contention..., then you should work to prevent its overcoming you in future.

(16) ‘Six elements: the earth-, water-, fire-, air-, space-element (ākāsa-dhātu), the consciousness-element (viṇṇāṇa-dhātu) .1102

(17) ‘Six elements making for deliverance (nissaraṇīyā-dhātuyo): Here, a monk might say:

(a) “I have developed the emancipation of the heart (ceto-vimutti) by loving-kindness (mettā), [248] expanded it, made it a vehicle and a base, established, worked well on it, set it well in train. And yet ill-will still grips my heart.” He should be told: “No! do not say that! Do not misrepresent the Blessed Lord, it is not right to slander him thus, for he would not have said such a thing! Your words are unfounded and impossible.

If you develop the emancipation of the heart through loving-kindness, ill-will has no chance to envelop your heart. This emancipation through loving-kindness is the cure for ill-will.” Or

(b) he might say: “I have developed the emancipation of the heart through compassion (karuṇā), and yet cruelty still grips my heart...” Or

c) he might say: “I have developed the emancipation of the heart through sympathetic joy (muditā), and yet aversion (arati) still grips my heart...” [249] Or

(d) he might say: “I have developed the emancipation of the heart through equanimity (upekhā), and yet lust (rāgo) grips my heart.” Or

(e) he might say: “I have developed the signless emancipation of the heart (animittā ceto-vimutti),1103 and yet my heart still hankers after signs (nimittānusāri hoti) ... ” Or

(f) he might say: “The idea ‘I am’ is repellent to me, I pay no heed to the idea: ‘I am this.’ Yet doubts, uncertainties and problems still grip my heart...” [250] (Reply to each in similar terms to (a)).

(18) ‘Six unsurpassed things (anuttariyāni):1104 [certain] sights, things heard, gains, trainings, forms of service (paricāriyānuttariyaṁ), objects of recollection.

(19) ‘Six subjects of recollection (anussati-ṭṭhānāni): the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha, morality, renunciation, the devas.

(20) ‘Six stable states (satata-vihārā):1105 On seeing an object with the eye, hearing a sound..., smelling a smell ... , tasting a flavour..., touching a tangible object... or cognising a mental object with the mind, one is neither pleased (sumano) nor displeased (dummano), but remains equable (upekhako), mindful and clearly aware.

(21) ‘Six “species” (ābhijātiyo): Here, (a) one born in dark conditions [251] lives a dark life, (b) one born in dark conditions lives a bright life, (c) one born in dark conditions attains Nibbāna, which is neither dark nor bright, (d) one born in bright conditions lives a dark life, (e) one born in bright conditions leads a bright life, (f) one born in bright conditions attains Nibbana which is neither dark nor bright.

(22) ‘Six perceptions conducive to penetration (nibbedha-bhāgiya-saññā): the perception of impermanence, of suffering in impermanence, of impersonality in suffering, of abandoning, of dispassion (as Sutta 33, verse 2.1 (26)) and the perception of cessation (nirodha-saññā).

‘These are the [sets of] six things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...’



2.3. ‘There are [sets of] seven things which have been perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...

(1) ‘Seven Ariyan treasures (ariya-dhanāni): faith, morality, moral shame (hiri), moral dread (ottappa), learning (suta), renunciation (cāga), wisdom.

(2) ‘Seven factors of enlightenment (sambojjhangā): mindfulness, [252] investigation of phenomena, energy, delight (pīti), tranquillity, concentration, equanimity.

(3) ‘Seven requisites of concentration: 1106 right view, thought, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness.

(4) ‘Seven wrong practices (asaddhammā): Here, a monk lacks faith, lacks moral shame, lacks moral dread, has little learning, is slack (kusḇīto), is unmindful (mutthassati), lacks wisdom.

(5) ‘Seven right practices (saddhammā): Here, a monk has faith, moral shame and moral dread, has much learning, has aroused vigour (āraddha-viriyo), has established mindfulness (upaṭṭhita-sati hoti), possesses wisdom.

(6) ‘Seven qualities of the true man (sappurisa-dhammā):1107 Here, a monk is a knower of the Dhamma, of meanings (atthaññū), of self (attaññū),1108 of moderation (mattaññū), of the right time, of groups (parisaññū), of persons.

(7) ‘Seven grounds for commendation (niddasa-vatthūni),1109 Here, a monk is keenly anxious (a) to undertake the training, and wants to persist in this, (b) to make a close study of the Dhamma, (c) to get rid of desires, (d) to find solitude, (e) to arouse energy, (f) to develop mindfulness and discrimination (sati-nepakke), [253] (g) to develop penetrative insight.1110

(8) ‘Seven perceptions: perception of impermanence, of not-self, of foulness (asubhasaññā), of danger, of abandonment, of dispassion, of cessation.

(9) ‘Seven powers (balāni): of faith, energy, moral shame, moral dread, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom.

(10) ‘Seven stations of consciousness:

Beings (a) different in body and different in perception;

(b) different in body and alike in perception;

(c) alike in body and different in perception;

(d) alike in body and alike in perception;

(e) who have attained to the Sphere of Infinite Space;

(f) ... of Infinite Consciousness;

(g) ... of No-Thingness (as Sutta 15, verse 33).

(11) ‘Seven persons worthy of offerings: The Both-Ways-Liberated [254], the Wisdom-Liberated, the Body-Witness, the Vision-Attainer, the Faith-Liberated, the Dhamma-Devotee, the Faith-Devotee (as Sutta 28, verse 8).

(12) ‘Seven latent proclivities (anusayā): sensuous greed (kāma-rāga), resentment (paṭigha), views, doubt, conceit, craving for becoming (bhava-rāga), ignorance.

(13) ‘Seven fetters (saṁyojanāni): complaisance (anunaya), 1111 resentment (then as (12)).

(14) ‘Seven rules for the pacification and settlement of disputed questions that have been raised:1112 (a) proceedings face-to-face, (b) recollection (sati), (c) mental derangement, (d) confession, (e) majority verdict, (f) habitual bad character, (g) “covering over with grass”.

‘These are the [sets of] seven things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord ... So we should all recite them together... for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.’

[End of second recitation-section]

3.1. ‘There are [sets of] eight things perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...

(1) ‘Eight wrong factors (micchattā): wrong view... (the reverse of (2) below). [255]

(2) ‘Eight right factors (sammattā): right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

(3) ‘Eight persons worthy of offerings:1113 the Stream-Winner and one who has practised to gain the fruit of Stream-Entry, the Once-Retumer..., the Non-Returner..., the Arahant and one who has worked to gain the fruit of Arahantship.

(4) ‘Eight occasions of indolence (kusīta-vatthūni):

Here, a monk (a) has a job to do. He thinks: “I’ve got this job to do, but it will make me tired. I’ll have a rest.” So he lies down and does not stir up enough energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realise the unrealised. Or

(b) he has done some work, and thinks: “I’ve done this work, now I’m tired. I’ll have a rest.” So he lies down ... Or

(c) he has to go on a journey, and thinks: “I have to go on this journey. It will make me tired ... ” Or

(d) he has been on a journey... Or

(e) he goes on the alms-round in a village or town and does not get his fill of food, whether coarse or fine, and he thinks: “I’ve gone for alms... [256] ... my body is tired and useless ... Or

(f) he goes on the alms-round ... and gets his fill ... He thinks: ”I’ve gone for alms ... and my body is heavy and useless as if I were pregnant ... ”1114 ... Or

(g) he has developed some slight indisposition, and he thinks: “I’d better have a rest...” Or

(h) he is recuperating, having not long recovered from an illness, and he thinks: “My body is weak and useless. I’ll have a rest.” So he lies down and does not stir up enough energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realise the unrealised.

(5) ‘Eight occasions for making an effort (ārabbha-vatthūni):

Here, a monk (a) has a job to do. He thinks: “I’ve got this job to do, but in doing it I won’t find it easy to pay attention to the teaching of the Buddhas. So I will stir up sufficient energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realise the unrealised.” Or

(b) he has [257] done some work, and thinks: “Well, I did the job, but because of it I wasn’t able to pay sufficient attention to the teaching of the Buddhas. So I will stir up sufficient energy...” Or

(c) he has to go on a journey...Or

(d) he has been on a journey. He thinks: “I’ve been on this journey, but because of it I wasn’t able to pay sufficient attention ...” Or

(e) he goes for alms ... without getting his fill ... And he thinks: “So my body is light and fit. I’ll stir up energy...”

Or (f) he goes for alms... and gets his fill ... And he thinks: “So my body is strong and fit. I’ll stir up energy...” Or

(g) he has some slight indisposition... and he thinks: “This indisposition might get worse, so I’ll stir up energy...

Or [258] (h) he is recuperating... and he thinks: ”... it might be that the illness will recur. So I’ll stir up energy...” Thus he stirs up sufficient energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realise the unrealised.

(6) ‘Eight bases for giving: One gives (a) as occasion offers (āsajja), (b) from fear, (c) thinking: “He gave me something”, (d) thinking: “He will give me something”, (e) thinking: “It is good to give”, (f) thinking: “I am cooking something, they are not. It would not be right not to give something to those who are not cooking”, (g) thinking: “If I make this gift I shall acquire a good reputation”, (h) in order to adorn and prepare one’s heart.1115

(7) ‘Eight kinds of rebirth due to generosity: Here, someone gives an ascetic or Brahmin food, drink, clothes, transport (yānaṁ), garlands, perfumes and ointments, sleeping accommodation, a dwelling, or lights, and he hopes to receive a return for his gifts.

He sees a rich Khattiya or Brahmin or householder living in full enjoyment of the pleasures of the five senses, and he thinks: “If only when I die I may be reborn as one of these rich people!” He sets his heart on this thought, fixes it and develops it (bhāveti).1116 And this thought, being launched (vimuttaṁ) at such a low level (hīne),and not developed to a higher level (uttarin abhāvitaṁ), leads to rebirth right there. [259]

But I say this of a moral person, not of an immoral one. The mental aspiration of a moral person is effective through its purity.1117 Or



(b) he gives such gifts and, having heard that the devas in the realm of the Four Great Kings live long, are good-looking and lead a happy life, he thinks: “If only I could be reborn there!” Or he similarly aspires to rebirth in the heavens of





(c) the Thirty-Three Gods, (d) the Yama devas, (e) the Tusita devas, (f) the Nimmanarati devas, (g) the Paranimmita-vasavatti devas. And this thought leads to rebirth right there ... The mental aspiration of a moral person is effective through its purity.

Or (h) he similarly aspires to rebirth in the world of Brahmā ... But [260]

I say this of a moral person, not an immoral one, one freed from passion (vītarāgassa), not one still swayed by passion.1118 The mental aspiration of [such] a moral person is effective through liberation from passion.

(8) ‘Eight assemblies: the assembly of Khattiyas, Brahmins, householders, ascetics, devas of the Realm of the Four Great Kings, of the Thirty-Three Gods, of maras, of Brahmas (as Sutta 16, verse 3.21).

(9) ‘Eight worldly conditions (loka-dhammā): gain and loss, fame and shame (yaso ca ayaso ca), blame and praise, happiness and misery.

(10) ‘Eight stages of mastery:

(a) perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms, limited and beautiful or ugly;

(b) (as (a) but) unlimited;

(c) not perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms, limited...;

(d) (as (c) but) unlimited;

not perceiving forms internally, one perceives forms that are (e) blue, [261]

(f) yellow,

(g) red,

(h) white (as Sutta 16, verse 3.25-32).

(11) ‘Eight liberations:

(a) possessing form, one sees forms;

(b) not perceiving material forms in oneself, one sees them outside;

(c) thinking: “It is beautiful”, one becomes intent on it; one enters

(d) the Sphere of Infinite Space;

(e) ... the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness;

(f)... the Sphere of No-Thingness;

(g) ... the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception;

(h)... the Cessation of Perception and Feeling (as Sutta 15, verse 35). [262]

“These are the [sets of] eight things...’



3.2. ‘There are [sets of] nine things...

(1) ‘Nine causes of malice (āghāta-vatthūni):

Malice is stirred up by the thought: (a) “He has done me an injury”, (b) “He is doing me an injury”, (c) “He will do me an injury”,

(d)-(f) “He has done, is doing, will do an injury to someone who is dear and pleasant to me”,

(g)-(i) “he has done, is doing, will do a favour to someone who is hateful and unpleasant to me.”

(2) ‘Nine ways of overcoming malice (āghāta-paṭivinayā):

Malice is overcome by the thought: (a)-(i) “He has done me an injury...” (as (1)). [263] “What good would it do [to harbour malice]?”





(3) ‘Nine abodes of beings

(a) Beings different in body and different in perception,

(b) beings different in body and alike in perception,

(c) beings alike in body and different in perception,

(d) beings alike in body and alike in perception,

(e) the Realm of Unconscious Beings,

(f) the Realm of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception,

(g) beings who have attained to the Sphere of Infinite Space,

(h) beings who have attained to the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness,

(i) beings who have attained to the Sphere of No-Thingness (as Sutta 15, verse 33).

(4) ‘Nine unfortunate, inopportune times for leading the holy life (akkhaṇā asamayā brahmacariya-vāsāya): [264]

(a) A Tathāgata has been born in the world, Arahant, fully-enlightened Buddha, and the Dhamma is taught which leads to calm and perfect Nibbāna, which leads to enlightenment as taught by the Well-Farer, and this person is born in a hell-state (nirayam),1119...

(b)... among the animals,

(c) ... among the petas,

(d) ... among the asuras,

(e) ... in a long-lived group of devas,1120 or

(f) he is born in the border regions among foolish barbarians where there is no access for monks and nuns, or male and female lay-followers, or

(g) he is born in the Middle Country,1121 but he has wrong views and distorted vision, thinking: “There is no giving, offering or sacrificing, there is no fruit or result of good or bad deeds; there is not this world and the next world; [265] there are no parents and there is no spontaneous rebirth; there are no ascetics and Brahmins in the world who, having attained to the highest and realised for themselves the highest knowledge about this world and the next, proclaim it”; 1122 or

(h) ... he is born in the Middle Country but lacks wisdom and is stupid, or is deaf and dumb and cannot tell whether something has been well said or ill said; or else ...

(i) no Tathāgata has arisen ... and this person is born in the Middle Country and is intelligent, not stupid, and not deaf or dumb, and well able to tell whether something has been well said or ill said.

(5) ‘Nine successive abidings:

[the jhānas and

Spheres of Infinite Space,

Infinite Consciousness,

No-Thingness,

Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception, and

Cessation of Perception and Feeling]. [266]

(6) ‘Nine successive cessations (anupubba-nirodhā):

By the attainment of the first jhāna, perceptions of sensuality (kāmasaññā) cease;

by the attainment of the second jhāna, thinking and pondering cease;

by the attainment of the third jhāna, delight (pīti) ceases;

by the attainment of the fourth jhāna, in-and out-breathing ceases;1123

by the attainment of the Sphere of Infinite Space, the perception of materiality ceases, by the attainment of the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, the perception of the Sphere of Infinite Space ceases;

by the attainment of the Sphere of No-Thingness, the perception of the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness ceases;

by the attainment of the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception, the perception of the Sphere of No-Thingness ceases;

by the attainment of the Cessation-of-Perception-and-Feeling, perception and feeling cease.

‘These are the [sets of] nine things...’



3.3. ‘There are [sets of] ten things perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...

(1) ‘Ten things that give protection (nātha-karana-dhammā): 1124

Here a monk (a) is moral, he lives restrained according to the restraint of the discipline, persisting in right behaviour, seeing danger in the slightest fault, he keeps to the rules of training; [267]

(b) he has learnt much, and bears in mind and retains what he has learnt. In these teachings, beautiful in the beginning, the middle and the ending, which in spirit and in letter proclaim the absolutely perfected and purified holy life, he is deeply learned, he remembers them, recites them, recites them, reflects on them and penetrates them with vision;

(c) he is a friend, associate and intimate of good people;

(d) he is affable, endowed with gentleness and patience, quick to grasp instruction;

(e) whatever various jobs there are to be done for his fellow-monks, he is skilful, not lax, using foresight in carrying them out, and is good at doing and planning;

(f) he loves the Dhamma and delights in hearing it, he is especially fond of the advanced doctrine and discipline (abhidhamme abhivinaye);1125 [268]

(g) he is content with any kind of requisites: robes, alms-food, lodging, medicines in case of illness;

(h) he ever strives to arouse energy, to get rid of unwholesome states, to establish wholesome states, untiringly and energetically striving to keep such good states and never shaking off the burden;

(i) he is mindful, with a great capacity for clearly recalling things done and said long ago;1126

(j) he is wise, with wise perception of arising and passing away, that Ariyan perception that leads to the complete destruction of suffering.

(2) ‘Ten objects for the attainment of absorption (kasiṇāyatanāni): 1127 He perceives the Earth-Kasina, the Water-Kasina, the Fire-Kasina, the Wind-Kasina, the Blue Kasina, the Yellow Kasina, the Red Kasina, the White Kasina, the Space-Kasina, the Consciousness Kasina,1128 above, below, on all sides, undivided, unbounded.

[269] (3) ‘Ten unwholesome courses of action (akusala-kammapathā): taking life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, lying speech, slander, rude speech, idle chatter, greed, malevolence, wrong view.

(4) ‘Ten wholesome courses of action: avoidance of taking life... (and so on, as (3) above).

(5) ‘Ten Ariyan dispositions (ariya-vāsā):

Here a monk (a) has got rid of five factors, (b) possesses six factors, (c) has established one guard, (d) observes the four supports, (e) has got rid of individual beliefs,1129 (f) has quite abandoned quest, (g) is pure of motive, (h) has tranquillised his emotions,1130 is well liberated (i) in heart, and (j) by wisdom.

How has he got rid of five factors? Here, he has got rid of sensuality, ill-will, sloth-and-torpor, worry-and-flurry, and doubt;

(b) what six factors does he possess? On seeing an object with the eye, hearing a sound..., smelling a smell..., tasting a flavour... , touching a tangible object..., or cognising a mental object with the mind, he is neither pleased nor displeased, but remains equable, mindful and clearly aware;

(c) how has he established the one guard? By guarding his mind with mindfulness;

(d) what are the four supports? He judges that one thing is to be pursued, one thing endured, one thing avoided, one thing suppressed (as verse 1.11 (8));

(e) how has he got rid of individual beliefs (panunna-pacceka-sacco)? Whatever individual beliefs are held by the majority of ascetics and Brahmins he has dismissed, abandoned, rejected, let go;

(f) how is he one who has quite abandoned quests? He has abandoned the quest for sense-desires, for rebirth, for the holy life;1131

(g) how is he pure of motive? He has abandoned thoughts of sensuality, ill-will, cruelty;

(h) how is he one who has tranquillised his emotions (passaddha-kaya-sankhāro hoti)? Because, having given up pleasure and pain with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain which is purified by equanimity, and this is the fourth jhāna;

(i) how is he well emancipated in heart? He is liberated from the thought of greed, hatred and delusion;

(j) how is he well liberated by wisdom? He understands: “For me greed, hatred and delusion are abandoned, cut off at the root, like a palm-tree stump, destroyed and incapable of growing again.” [271]

(6) ‘Ten qualities of the non-learner (asekha):1132 The non-learner’s right view, right thought; right speech, right action, right livelihood; right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration; right knowledge (sammā-n͂āṇam), right liberation (sammā-vimutti).

‘These are the [sets of] ten things which have been perfectly set forth by the Lord who knows and sees, the fully-enlightened Buddha. So we should all recite them together without disagreement, so that this holy life may be long-lasting and established for a long time to come, thus to be for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.’

3.4. And when the Lord had stood up, he said to the Venerable Sāriputta:

‘Good, good, Sāriputta! Well indeed have you proclaimed the way of chanting together for the monks!’

These things were said by the Venerable Sāriputta, and the Teacher confirmed them. The monks were delighted and rejoiced at the Venerable Sāriputta’s words.

Hết phần 33. Kinh Phúng Tụng (Sangīti sutta)

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