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Với kẻ kiên trì thì không có gì là khó, như dòng nước chảy mãi cũng làm mòn tảng đá.Kinh Lời dạy cuối cùng
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Của cải và sắc dục đến mà người chẳng chịu buông bỏ, cũng tỷ như lưỡi dao có dính chút mật, chẳng đủ thành bữa ăn ngon, trẻ con liếm vào phải chịu cái họa đứt lưỡi.Kinh Bốn mươi hai chương
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Ai sống quán bất tịnh, khéo hộ trì các căn, ăn uống có tiết độ, có lòng tin, tinh cần, ma không uy hiếp được, như núi đá, trước gió.Kinh Pháp cú (Kệ số 8)
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Itivuttaka

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Itivuttaka: The Group of Ones
§ 1. {Iti 1.1; Iti 1}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Abandon one quality, monks, and I guarantee you non-return. Which one quality? Abandon greed as the one quality, and I guarantee you non-return."[1] This is the meaning of what the Blessed One said. So with regard to this it was said:[2]
The greed with which
beings go to a bad destination,[3]
coveting:
from rightly discerning that greed,
those who see clearly
let go.
Letting go,
they never come to this world
again.
This, too, was the meaning of what was said by the Blessed One, so I have heard.[4]
Notes
1.
Non-return: The third of the four levels of Awakening. On reaching this level, one will never be reborn in this world. A non-returner who does not go on to attain arahantship in this lifetime will be reborn in the Brahma worlds called the Pure Abodes and will attain nibbana there.
2, 4. These two statements are repeated in each discourse. To avoid monotony, they are given here only in the first and last discourses.
3.
The bad destinations rebirth in hell, as a hungry shade, as an angry demon, or as a common animal. As with the good destinations — rebirth as a human being, in heaven, or in the Brahma worlds — these states are impermanent and dependent on kamma.
§ 2. {Iti 1.2; Iti 1}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Abandon one quality, monks, and I guarantee you non-return. Which one quality? Abandon aversion as the one quality, and I guarantee you non-return."
The aversion with which
beings go to a bad destination,
upset:
from rightly discerning that aversion,
those who see clearly
let go.
Letting go,
they never come to this world
again.
§ 3. {Iti 1.3; Iti 2}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Abandon one quality, monks, and I guarantee you non-return. Which one quality? Abandon delusion as the one quality, and I guarantee you non-return."
The delusion with which
beings go to a bad destination,
confused:
from rightly discerning that delusion,
those who see clearly
let go.
Letting go,
they never come to this world
again.
§ 4. {Iti 1.4; Iti 2}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Abandon one quality, monks, and I guarantee you non-return. Which one quality? Abandon anger as the one quality, and I guarantee you non-return."
The anger with which
beings go to a bad destination,
enraged:
from rightly discerning that anger,
those who see clearly
let go.
Letting go,
they never come to this world
again.
§ 5. {Iti 1.5; Iti 3}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Abandon one quality, monks, and I guarantee you non-return. Which one quality? Abandon contempt as the one quality, and I guarantee you non-return."
The contempt with which
beings go to a bad destination,
disdainful:
from rightly discerning that contempt,
those who see clearly
let go.
Letting go,
they never come to this world
again.
§ 6. {Iti 1.6; Iti 3}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Abandon one quality, monks, and I guarantee you non-return. Which one quality? Abandon conceit as the one quality, and I guarantee you non-return."
The conceit with which
beings go to a bad destination,
proud:
from rightly discerning that conceit,
those who see clearly
let go.
Letting go,
they never come to this world
again.
§ 7. {Iti 1.7; Iti 3}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, one who has not fully known & fully understood the All,[1] whose mind has not been cleansed of passion for it, has not abandoned it, is incapable of putting an end to stress. But one who has fully known & fully understood the All, whose mind has been cleansed of passion for it, has abandoned it, is capable of putting an end to stress."
Knowing the All
from all around,
not stirred by passion
for anything at all:
he, having comprehended
the All,
has gone beyond
all stress.
Note
1.
"The All" = the six senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, & ideation) and their respective objects. This covers every aspect of experience that can be described, but does not include nibbana. For a full discussion of this point, see The Mind Like Fire Unbound, pp. 30-32.
§ 8. {Iti 1.8; Iti 4}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, one who has not fully known & fully understood conceit, whose mind has not been cleansed of it, has not abandoned it, is incapable of putting an end to stress. But one who has fully known & fully understood conceit, whose mind has been cleansed of it, has abandoned it, is capable of putting an end to stress."
People are
possessed by conceit
tied up with conceit
delighted with becoming.
Not comprehending conceit,
they come to becoming again.
But those who, letting go of conceit,
are, in its destruction, released,
conquering the bond of conceit,
go beyond
all bonds.
§ 9. {Iti 1.9; Iti 4}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, one who has not fully known & fully understood greed, who has not detached his mind from it and let go of it, is incapable of putting an end to stress. But one who has fully known & fully understood greed, who has detached his mind from it and let go of it, is capable of putting an end to stress."
The greed with which
beings go to a bad destination,
coveting:
from rightly discerning that greed,
those who see clearly
let go.
Letting go,
they never come to this world
again.
§ 10-13. {Iti 1.10; Iti 5}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, one who has not fully known & fully understood aversion... delusion... anger... contempt, who has not detached his mind from it and let go of it, is incapable of putting an end to stress. But one who has fully known & fully understood aversion... delusion... anger... contempt, who has detached his mind from it and let go of it, is capable of putting an end to stress."
[The verses for these discourses = those for discourses 2-5.]
§ 14. {Iti 1.14; Iti 7}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, I don't envision even one other obstruction — obstructed by which people go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time — like the obstruction of ignorance. Obstructed with the obstruction of ignorance, people go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time."
No one other thing
so obstructs people
that they wander on, day & night,
as when they're ensnared
with delusion.
But those who, letting go of delusion,
shatter the mass of darkness,
wander no further.
Their cause isn't found.
§ 15. {Iti 1.15; Iti 8}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, I don't envision even one other fetter — fettered by which beings conjoined go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time — like the fetter of craving. Fettered with the fetter of craving, beings conjoined go wandering & transmigrating on for a long, long time."
With craving his companion, a man
wanders on a long, long time.
Neither in this state here
nor anywhere else
does he go beyond
the wandering- on.
Knowing this drawback —
that craving brings stress into play —
free from craving,
devoid of clinging,
mindful, the monk
lives the mendicant life.
§ 16. {Iti 1.16; Iti 9}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "With regard to internal factors, I don't envision any other single factor like appropriate attention[1] as doing so much for a monk in training,[2] who has not attained the heart's goal but remains intent on the unsurpassed safety from bondage.[3] A monk who attends appropriately abandons what is unskillful and develops what is skillful.
Appropriate attention
as a quality
of a monk in training:
nothing else
does so much
for attaining the superlative goal.
A monk, striving appropriately,
attains the ending of stress.
Notes
1.
Appropriate attention (yoniso manasikara) is the ability to focus attention on questions that lead to the end of suffering. MN 2 lists the following questions as not fit for attention: "Was I in the past? Was I not in the past? What was I in the past? How was I in the past?... Shall I be in the future? Shall I not be in the future? What shall I be in the future? How shall I be in the future?... Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? Where has this being come from? Where is it bound?" The discourse also lists the following issues as fit for attention: "This is stress. This is the origination of stress. This is the cessation of stress. This is the way leading to the cessation of stress."
2.
A person "in training" is one who has attained at least the first level of Awakening, but not yet the final level.
3.
Bondage = the four yokes: sensual passion, becoming, views, & ignorance.
§ 17. {Iti 1.17; Iti 10}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "With regard to external factors, I don't envision any other single factor like admirable friendship[1] as doing so much for a monk in training, who has not attained the heart's goal but remains intent on the unsurpassed safety from bondage. A monk who is a friend with admirable people abandons what is unskillful and develops what is skillful."
A monk with admirable people
as friends
— who's reverential, respectful,
doing what his friends advise —
mindful, alert,
attains step by step
the ending of all fetters.
Note
1.
In SN 45.2 the Buddha says, "Admirable friendship... is actually the whole of the holy life... It is in dependence on me as an admirable friend that beings subject to birth have gained release from birth... aging... death... sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair." As AN 8.54 points out, admirable friendship means not only associating with good people, but also learning from them and emulating their good qualities.
§ 18. {Iti 1.18; Iti 10}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "One thing, when arising in the world, arises for the detriment of many, for the unhappiness of many, for the detriment & unhappiness of many beings, both human & divine. Which one thing? Schism in the Sangha. When the Sangha is split, there are arguments with one another, there is abuse of one another, ganging up on one another, abandoning of one another. Then those with little confidence [in the teaching] lose all confidence, while some of those who are confident become otherwise."
Doomed for an aeon
to deprivation,
to hell:
one who has split the Sangha.
Delighting in factions,
unjudicious —
he's barred
from safety from bondage.
Having split a Sangha in concord,
he cooks for an aeon
in hell.
§ 19. {Iti 1.19; Iti 11}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "One thing, when arising in the world, arises for the welfare of many, for the happiness of many, for the welfare & happiness of many beings, both human & divine. Which one thing? Concord in the Sangha. When the Sangha is in concord, there are no arguments with one another, no abuse of one another, no ganging up on one another, no abandoning of one another. Then those with little confidence [in the teaching] become confident, while those already confident become even more so."
Blissful is concord in the Sangha.
One who assists in concord —
delighting in concord,
judicious —
isn't barred from safety from bondage.
Having brought concord to the Sangha,
he rejoices for an aeon
in heaven.
§ 20. {Iti 1.20; Iti 12}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "There is the case where a certain person is corrupt-minded. Having encompassed that mind with [my] awareness, I discern, 'If this person were to die at this instant, then as if he were to be carried off, he would thus be placed in hell.' Why is that? Because his mind is corrupt. It's because of corrupt-mindedness that there are cases where beings — at the break-up of the body, after death — reappear in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell."
Knowing the case
of a corrupt-minded person,
the One Awakened explained its meaning
in the presence of the monks.
If that person
were to die at this instant,
he'd reappear in hell
because his mind is corrupt —
as if he were carried off
and placed there.
It's because of corrupt-mindedness
that beings go
to a bad destination.
§ 21. {Iti 1.21; Iti 13}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "There is the case where a certain person is clear-minded. Having encompassed that mind with [my] awareness, I discern, 'If this person were to die at this instant, then as if he were to be carried off, he would thus be placed in heaven.' Why is that? Because his mind is clear. It's because of clear-mindedness that there are cases where beings — at the break-up of the body, after death — reappear in the heavenly world."
Knowing the case
of a clear-minded person,
the One Awakened explained its meaning
in the presence of the monks.
If that person
were to die at this instant,
he'd reappear in heaven
because his mind is clear —
as if he were carried off
and placed there.
It's because of clear-mindedness
that beings go
to a good destination.
§ 22. {Iti 1.22; Iti 14}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, don't be afraid of acts of merit. This is another way of saying what is blissful, desirable, pleasing, endearing, charming — i.e., acts of merit. I am cognizant that, having long performed meritorious deeds, I long experienced desirable, pleasing, endearing, charming results. Having developed a mind of good will for seven years, then for seven aeons of contraction & expansion I didn't return to this world. Whenever the aeon was contracting, I went to the realm of Streaming Radiance. Whenever the aeon was expanding, I reappeared in an empty Brahma-abode. There I was the Great Brahman, the Unconquered Conqueror, All-seeing, & Wielder of Power. Then for thirty-six times I was Sakka, ruler of the gods. For many hundreds of times I was a king, a wheel-turning emperor, a righteous king of Dhamma, conqueror of the four corners of the earth, maintaining stable control over the countryside, endowed with the seven treasures[1] — to say nothing of the times I was a local king. The thought occurred to me: 'Of what action of mine is this the fruit, of what action the result, that I now have such great power & might?' Then the thought occurred to me: 'This is the fruit of my three [types of] action, the result of three types of action, that I now have such great power & might: i.e., giving, self-control, & restraint.'"
Train in acts of merit
that bring long-lasting bliss —
develop giving,
a life in tune,
a mind of good-will.
Developing these
three things
that bring about bliss,
the wise reappear
in a world of bliss
unalloyed.
Note
1.
The seven treasures are a divine wheel, an ideal jewel, an ideal elephant, an ideal horse, an ideal wife, an ideal treasurer, an ideal counselor.
§ 23. {Iti 1.23; Iti 16}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "This one quality, if developed & pursued, keeps both kinds of benefit secure: benefits in this life & benefits in lives to come. Which one quality? Heedfulness with regard to skillful qualities. This is the one quality that, if developed & pursued, keeps both kinds of benefit secure: benefits in this life & benefits in lives to come."
They praise heedfulness, the wise,
in doing acts of merit.
When heedful, wise,
you achieve both kinds of benefit:
benefits in this life,
& benefits in lives to come.
By breaking through to your benefit,
you're called enlightened,
wise.
§ 24. {Iti 1.24; Iti 17}
[Alternate translation: Ireland]
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "If a single person were to wander & transmigrate on for an aeon, he/she would leave behind a chain of bones, a pile of bones, a heap of bones, as large as this Mount Vepulla, if there were someone to collect them and the collection were not destroyed."
The accumulation
of a single person's
bones for an aeon
would be a heap
on a par with the mountain,
so said the Great Seer.
(He declared this to be
the great Mount Vepulla
to the north of Vulture's Peak
in the mountain-ring
of the Magadhans.)[1]
But when that person sees
with right discernment
the four Noble Truths —
stress,
the cause of stress,
the transcending of stress,
& the Noble Eightfold Path,
the way to the stilling of stress —
having wandered on
seven times at most, then,
with the ending of all fetters,
he puts a stop
to stress.
Note
1.
Magadha was a kingdom in the time of the Buddha, corresponding roughly to the present day state of Bihar. Its capital city, Rajagaha, was surrounded by a ring of five mountains. Vulture's Peak, a secluded rock outcrop in the middle of the ring, was a spot frequented by the Buddha.
§ 25. {Iti 1.25; Iti 18}
[Alternate translation: Ireland]
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "For the person who transgresses in one thing, I tell you, there is no evil deed that is not to be done. Which one thing? This: telling a deliberate lie."
The person who lies,
who transgress in this one thing,
transcending concern for the world beyond:
there's no evil
he might not do.
§ 26. {Iti 1.26; Iti 18}
[suttareadings.net] [Alternate translation: Ireland]
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "If beings knew, as I know, the results of giving & sharing, they would not eat without having given, nor would the stain of selfishness overcome their minds. Even if it were their last bite, their last mouthful, they would not eat without having shared, if there were someone to receive their gift. But because beings do not know, as I know, the results of giving & sharing, they eat without having given. The stain of selfishness overcomes their minds."
If beings knew
what the Great Seer said,
how the result of sharing
has such great fruit,
then, subduing the stain of selfishness
with brightened awareness,
they'd give in season
to the noble ones,
where a gift bears great fruit.
Having given food
as an offering
to those worthy of offerings,
many donors,
when they pass away from here,
the human state,
go
to heaven.
They, having gone there
to heaven,
rejoice,
enjoying sensual pleasures.
Unselfish, they
partake of the result
of sharing.
§ 27. {Iti 1.27; Iti 19}
[suttareadings.net] [Alternate translation: Ireland]
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "All the grounds for making merit leading to spontaneously arising (in heaven) do not equal one-sixteenth of the awareness-release through good will. Good will — surpassing them — shines, blazes, & dazzles.
"Just as the radiance of all the stars does not equal one-sixteenth of the radiance of the moon, as the moon — surpassing them — shines, blazes, & dazzles, even so, all the grounds for making merit leading to spontaneously arising in heaven do not equal one-sixteenth of the awareness-release through good will. Good will — surpassing them — shines, blazes, & dazzles.
"Just as in the last month of the rains, in autumn, when the sky is clear & cloudless, the sun, on ascending the sky, overpowers the space immersed in darkness, shines, blazes, & dazzles, even so, all the grounds for making merit leading to spontaneously arising in heaven do not equal one-sixteenth of the awareness-release through good will. Good will — surpassing them — shines, blazes, & dazzles.
"Just as in the pre-dawn darkness the morning star shines, blazes, & dazzles, even so, all the grounds for making merit leading to spontaneously arising in heaven do not equal one-sixteenth of the awareness-release through good will. Good will — surpassing them — shines, blazes, & dazzles."
When one develops — mindful —
good will without limit,
fetters are worn through,
on seeing the ending
of acquisitions.
If with uncorrupted mind
you feel good will
for even one being,
you become skilled from that.
But a Noble One produces
a mind of sympathy
for all beings,
an abundance of merit.
Kingly seers, who conquered the earth
swarming with beings,
went about making sacrifices:
the horse sacrifice, human sacrifice,
water rites, soma rites,
& the "Unobstructed,"
but these don't equal
one sixteenth
of a well-developed mind of good will —
as all the constellations don't,
one sixteenth
of the radiance of the moon.
One who neither kills
nor gets others to kill,
neither conquers,
nor gets others to conquer,
with good will for all beings,
has no hostility with anyone
at all.
Itivuttaka: The Group of Twos
§ 28. {Iti 2.1; Iti 22}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Endowed with two things, a monk lives in stress in the present life — troubled, distressed, & feverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, a bad destination can be expected. Which two? A lack of guarding of the doors of the sense faculties, and knowing no moderation in food. Endowed with these two things, a monk lives in stress in the present life — troubled, distressed, & feverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, a bad destination can be expected."
Eye & ear & nose,
tongue & body & mind:
when a monk leaves these doors unguarded
— knowing no moderation in food,
not restraining his senses —
he experiences stress:
stress in body, stress
in mind.
Burning in body
burning in mind,
whether by day or by night,
he lives
in suffering & stress.
§ 29. {Iti 2.2; Iti 23}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Endowed with two things, a monk lives in ease in the present life — untroubled, undistressed, & unfeverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, a good destination can be expected. Which two? A guarding of the doors of the sense faculties, and knowing moderation in food. Endowed with these two things, a monk lives in ease in the present life — untroubled, undistressed, & unfeverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, a good destination can be expected."
Eye & ear & nose,
tongue & body & mind:
when a monk has these doors well guarded
— knowing moderation in food,
restraining his senses —
he experiences ease:
ease in body, ease
in mind.
Not burning in body,
not burning in mind,
whether by day or by night,
he lives
in ease.
§ 30. {Iti 2.3; Iti 24}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "There are these two things that cause remorse. Which two? There is the case of the person who has not done what is admirable, has not done what is skillful, has not given protection to those in fear, and instead has done what is evil, savage, & cruel. Thinking, 'I have not done what is admirable,' he feels remorse. Thinking, 'I have done what is evil,' he feels remorse. These are the two things that cause remorse."
Having engaged
in bodily misconduct,
verbal misconduct,
misconduct of mind,[1]
or whatever else is flawed,
not having done what is skillful,
having done much that is not,
at the break-up of the body,
the undiscerning one reappears in
hell.
Note
1.
AN 10.176 defines bodily misconduct as killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct; verbal misconduct as lies, divisive speech, harsh speech, and idle chatter; and mental misconduct as covetousness, ill will, and wrong views (see the note to §32).
§ 31. {Iti 2.4; Iti 25}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "There are these two things that cause no remorse. Which two? There is the case of the person who has done what is admirable, has done what is skillful, has given protection to those in fear, and has done nothing that is evil, savage, or cruel. Thinking, 'I have done what is admirable,' he feels no remorse. Thinking, 'I have not done what is evil,' he feels no remorse. These are the two things that cause no remorse."
Having abandoned
bodily misconduct,
verbal misconduct,
misconduct of mind,
& whatever else is flawed,
not having done what's not skillful,
having done much that is,
at the break-up of the body,
the discerning one reappears
in heaven.
§ 32. {Iti 2.5; Iti 26}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Endowed with two things, a person — as if carried off — is thus placed in hell. Which two? Evil habits & evil views. Endowed with these two things, a person — as if carried off — is thus placed in hell."
Evil habits &
evil views:[1]
a person, undiscerning,
endowed with these two things,
at the break-up of the body
reappears in hell.
Note
1.
MN 117 gives the following example of an evil view: "There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no brahmans or contemplatives who, faring rightly &practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves."
§ 33. {Iti 2.6; Iti 26}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Endowed with two things, a person — as if carried off — is thus placed in heaven. Which two? Auspicious habits & auspicious views. Endowed with these two things, a person — as if carried off — is thus placed in heaven."
Auspicious habits &
auspicious views:
a person, discerning,
endowed with these two things,
at the break-up of the body
reappears in heaven.
§ 34. {Iti 2.7; Iti 27}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "A person without ardor, without concern [for the results of doing evil], is incapable of self-awakening, incapable of Unbinding, incapable of attaining the unsurpassed safety from bondage. A person ardent & concerned is capable of self-awakening, capable of Unbinding, capable of attaining the unsurpassed safety from bondage."
With no ardor, no
concern,
lazy, with low persistence,
full of sloth & drowsiness,
shameless, without respect:
he's incapable,
a monk like this,
of touching superlative
self-awakening.
But whoever is mindful, masterful,
absorbed in jhana,
ardent, concerned, & heedful,
cutting the fetter of birth & aging,
touches right here
a self-awakening un-
surpassed.
§ 35. {Iti 2.8; Iti 28}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, this holy life is lived, not for the sake of deceiving people, not for the sake of inveigling people, not for the sake of the rewards of gain, offerings, & tribute, nor with the thought, 'Thus may people know me.' This holy life is lived for the sake of restraint & abandoning."
For the sake of restraint,
for the sake of abandoning,
he, the Blessed One, taught
a holy life not handed down,[1]
coming to shore
in Unbinding.
This path is pursued
by those great in purpose,
great seers.
Those who follow it,
as taught by the One Awakened,
heeding the Teacher's message,
will put an end
to suffering & stress.
Note
1.
"Not handed down": not derived from an ancient tradition, and not dependent on ancient tradition for its authority.
§ 36. {Iti 2.9; Iti 29}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, this holy life is lived, not for the sake of deceiving people, not for the sake of inveigling people, not for the sake of the rewards of gain, offerings, & tribute, nor with the thought, 'Thus may people know me.' This holy life is lived for the sake of direct knowledge[1] & full comprehension."
For the sake of direct knowledge & full
comprehension,
he, the Blessed One, taught
a holy life not handed down,
coming to shore
in Unbinding.
Unbinding.
This path is pursued
by those great in purpose,
great seers.
Those who follow it,
as taught by the One Awakened,
heeding the Teacher's message,
will put an end
to suffering & stress.
Note
1.
Direct knowledge = abhiñña. The Canon lists six types of abhiñña: psychic powers, clairaudience, the ability to read the minds of others, recollection of past lives, clairvoyance, and — most important of all — knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations.
§ 37. {Iti 2.10; Iti 29}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Endowed with two things, a monk lives in ease in the present life and is appropriately aroused for the ending of the fermentations. Which two? A sense of urgency & awe toward things that should inspire urgency & awe[1] and, feeling urgency & awe, appropriate exertion. Endowed with two things, a monk lives in ease in the present life and is appropriately aroused for the ending of the fermentations."
Feeling urgency, awe,
toward what should inspire it,
the wise,
masterful,
ardent monk
should investigate
with discernment.
One who lives thus ardently,
not restlessly, at peace,
committed to awareness-tranquillity
would attain the ending
of suffering & stress.
Note
1.
Urgency & awe = samvega. Other meanings for this term include shock, dismay, & alienation. In the Pali canon, this emotion is often accompanied by fear and a sensed need to escape from overwhelming danger. The things that should inspire urgency & awe are the first four of the five reflections listed in AN 5.57: "I am subject to aging, have not gone beyond aging. I am subject to illness, have not gone beyond illness. I am subject to death, have not gone beyond death. I will grow different, separate from all that is dear & appealing to me." Appropriate exertion is indicated by the fifth reflection: "I am the owner of my actions, heir to my actions, born of my actions, related through my actions, and have by actions as my arbitrator. Whatever I do, for good or for evil, to that will I fall heir."
§ 38. {Iti 2.11; Iti 31}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Two trains of thought often occur to the Tathagata, worthy & rightly self-awakened: the thought of safety & that of seclusion.
"The Tathagata enjoys non-ill will, delights in non-ill will. To him — enjoying non-ill will, delighting in non-ill will — this thought often occurs: 'By this activity I harm no one at all, whether weak or firm.'
"The Tathagata enjoys seclusion, delights in seclusion. To him — enjoying seclusion, delighting in seclusion — this thought often occurs: 'Whatever is unskillful is abandoned.'
"Thus, monks, you too should live enjoying non-ill will, delighting in non-ill will. To you — enjoying non-ill will, delighting in non-ill will — this thought will often occur: 'By this activity we harm no one at all, whether weak or firm.'
"You too should live enjoying seclusion, delighting in seclusion. To you — enjoying seclusion, delighting in seclusion — this thought will often occur: 'What is unskillful? What is not yet abandoned? What are we abandoning?'"
To the Tathagata,
awakened,
who endured what is hard to endure,
two thoughts occur:
safety the first thought mentioned;
seclusion the second declared.
The dispeller of darkness, free
of fermentation,
the great seer
who has gone beyond,
reached attainment,
gained mastery,
crossed over the poisons;
who's released in the ending of craving:
that sage
bears his last body,
has shaken off Mara, I tell you,
has gone beyond aging.
As one standing on a rocky crag
would see the people all around below,
so the wise,
with the all-around eye,
having scaled the tower
made of Dhamma,
having crossed over sorrow,
gaze on those overwhelmed with sorrow,
conquered by aging & death.
§ 39. {Iti 2.12; Iti 33}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "The Tathagata — worthy & rightly self-awakened — has two Dhamma discourses given in sequence. Which two? 'See evil as evil.' This is the first Dhamma discourse. 'Having seen evil as evil, become disenchanted there, dispassionate there, released.' This is the second Dhamma discourse. These are the two Dhamma discourses that the Tathagata — worthy & rightly self-awakened — has given in sequence."
See the two statements,
declared in sequence,
by the Tathagata,
awakened, sympathetic
to all beings. The first:
Be dispassionate there
toward evil.
Then, with a mind dispassionate,
you will put an end
to suffering & stress.
§ 40. {Iti 2.13; Iti 34}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Ignorance[1] precedes the arrival of unskillful qualities; lack of conscience & lack of concern[2] follow after. Clear knowing precedes the arrival of skillful qualities; conscience & concern follow after."
Any bad destinations
in this world, in the next,
are rooted in ignorance — all —
accumulations
of desire & greed.
And when a person of evil desires
lacks conscience & respect,
evil comes from that,
and by that he goes
to deprivation.
So cleansing away
ignorance, desire, & greed,
a monk giving rise to clear knowing
would abandon all bad destinations.
Notes
1.
Ignorance (avijja) means ignorance of stress, its origination, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation.
2.
Conscience (hiri) means a healthy sense of shame — derived from self-esteem — at the idea of doing evil. Concern (ottappa) means fear of the consequences of doing evil.
§ 41. {Iti 2.14; Iti 35}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Those beings are truly deprived who are deprived of noble discernment. They live in stress in the present life — troubled, distressed, & feverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, a bad destination can be expected.
"Those beings are not deprived who are not deprived of noble discernment. They live in ease in the present life — untroubled, undistressed, & not feverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, a good destination can be expected.
Look at the world
— including its heavenly beings:
deprived of discernment,
making an abode in name-&-form,
it conceives that 'This is the truth.'
The best discernment in the world
is what leads
to penetration,
for it rightly discerns
the total ending of birth & becoming.
Human & heavenly beings
hold them dear:
those who are self-awakened,
mindful,
bearing their last bodies
with joyful discernment.
§ 42. {Iti 2.15; Iti 36}
[Alternate translation: Ireland]
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "There are these two bright qualities that safeguard the world. Which two? Conscience & concern (for the results of unskillful actions). If these two bright qualities did not guard the world, there would be no recognition of 'mother' here, no recognition of 'mother's sister,' 'uncle's wife,' 'teacher's wife,' or 'wife of those who deserve respect.' The world would be immersed in promiscuity, like rams with goats, roosters with pigs, or dogs with jackals. But because these two bright qualities guard the world, there is recognition of 'mother,' 'mother's sister,' 'uncle's wife,' 'teacher's wife,' & 'wife of those who deserve respect.'"
Those in whom
concern & conscience
are not always found
have strayed
from the bright root,
are headed
to birth & death.
But those in whom
concern & conscience
are rightly established always,
who are mature in the holy life:
they are calm,
their further becoming
ended.
§ 43. {Iti 2.16; Iti 37}
[Alternate translation: Ireland]
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "There is, monks, an unborn — unbecome — unmade — unfabricated. If there were not that unborn — unbecome — unmade — unfabricated, there would not be the case that emancipation from the born — become — made — fabricated would be discerned. But precisely because there is an unborn — unbecome — unmade — unfabricated, emancipation from the born — become — made — fabricated is thus discerned."
The born, become, produced,
made, fabricated, impermanent,
composed of aging & death,
a nest of illnesses, perishing,
come from nourishment
and the guide [that is craving] —
is unfit for delight.
The escape from that
is
calm, permanent,
beyond inference,
unborn, unproduced,
the sorrowless, stainless state,
the cessation of stressful qualities,
the stilling of fabrications,
bliss.
§ 44. {Iti 2.17; Iti 38}
[Alternate translation: Ireland]
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, there are these two forms of the Unbinding property. Which two? The Unbinding property with fuel remaining, & the Unbinding property with no fuel remaining.
And what is the Unbinding property with fuel remaining? There is the case where a monk is an arahant whose fermentations have ended, who has reached fulfillment, finished the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, ended the fetter of becoming, and is released through right gnosis. His five sense faculties still remain and, owing to their being intact, he is cognizant of the agreeable & the disagreeable, and is sensitive to pleasure & pain. His ending of passion, aversion, & delusion is termed the Unbinding property with fuel remaining.[1]
And what is the Unbinding property with no fuel remaining? There is the case where a monk is an arahant whose fermentations have ended, who has reached fulfillment, finished the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, ended the fetter of becoming, and is released through right gnosis. For him, all that is sensed, being unrelished, will grow cold right here. This is termed the Unbinding property with no fuel remaining."[2]
These two proclaimed
by the one with vision,
Unbinding properties the one independent,
the one who is Such:[3]
one property, here in this life
with fuel remaining
from the destruction
of the guide to becoming,
and that with no fuel remaining,
after this life,
in which all becoming
totally ceases.
Those who know
this state uncompounded,
their minds released
through the destruction
of the guide to becoming,
they, attaining the Teaching's core,
pleased with ending,
have abandoned all becoming:
they, the Such.
Notes
1, 2.
With fuel remaining (sa-upadisesa) and with no fuel remaining (anupadisesa): The analogy here is to a fire. In the first case, the flames are out, but the embers are still glowing. In the second, the fire is so thoroughly out that the embers have grown cold. The "fuel" here is the five aggregates (see the Glossary). While the arahant is still alive, he/she still experiences the five aggregates, but they do not burn with the fires of passion, aversion, or delusion. When the arahant passes away, there is no longer any experience of aggregates here or anywhere else. For a discussion of this point, see The Mind Like Fire Unbound, pp. 21-37.
3.
Such (tadi): An adjective to describe one who has attained the goal. It indicates that the person's state is undefinable and not subject to change or influence of any sort.
§ 45. {Iti 2.18; Iti 39}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, live enjoying aloofness, delighting in aloofness, inwardly committed to awareness-tranquillity, not neglecting jhana, endowed with clear-seeing insight, and frequenting empty buildings. As you live enjoying aloofness, delighting in aloofness, inwardly committed to awareness-tranquillity, not neglecting jhana, endowed with clear-seeing insight, and frequenting empty buildings, then one of two fruits can be expected: either gnosis right in the present life, or — if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance — non-return."
Those with calm minds —
masterful,
mindful,
absorbed in jhana —
clearly see things rightly,
not intent on sensual pleasures.
Delighting in heedfulness,
calm,
seeing danger in heedlessness, they
— incapable of falling away —
are right on the verge of Unbinding.
§ 46. {Iti 2.19; Iti 40}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, live with the trainings [in heightened virtue, heightened mind, & heightened discernment] as your reward, with discernment uppermost, release the essence, & mindfulness the governing principle. As you live with the trainings as your reward, with discernment uppermost, release the essence, & mindfulness the governing principle, then one of two fruits can be expected: either gnosis right in the present life, or — if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance — non-return."
Complete in the training,
not subject to falling away,
one with discernment
uppermost,
seeing the stopping, the ending of birth:
that sage
bears his last body,
has shaken off Mara, I tell you,
has gone beyond aging.
So, always
delighting in jhana,
centered,
ardent,
seeing the stopping, the ending of birth,
conquering Mara, along with his host,
monks,
be gone-beyond aging & death.
§ 47. {Iti 2.20; Iti 41}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "A monk should be wakeful: mindful, alert, centered, sensitive, clear, & calm. And there he should, at the appropriate times, see clearly into skillful mental qualities. For a monk who is wakeful — mindful, alert, centered, sensitive, clear, & calm, seeing clearly, at the appropriate times, into skillful mental qualities — one of two fruits can be expected: either gnosis right in the present life, or — if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance — non-return."
Those who are wakeful, listen!
Those who are sleeping, wake up!
Wakefulness is better than sleep.
For those who are wakeful,
there's no danger, no fear.
Whoever is wakeful,
mindful, alert,
centered, sensitive,
calm, & clear,
rightly exploring the Dhamma
at appropriate times,
will — at oneness —
shatter the darkness.
So be devoted to wakefulness.
The ardent monk
— masterful, acquiring jhana,
cutting the fetter of birth & aging —
touches right here
a self-awakening un-
surpassed.
§ 48. {Iti 2.21; Iti 42}
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, these two are doomed to deprivation, to hell, for not abandoning their conduct. Which two? One who, not living the celibate life, pretends to be one who lives the celibate life; and one who groundlessly accuses one who lives the celibate life perfectly & purely of uncelibate behavior. These are the two who are doomed to deprivation, to hell, for not abandoning their conduct."
He goes to hell,
the one who asserts
what didn't take place,
as does the one
who, having done,
says, 'I didn't.'
Both — low-acting people —
there become equal:
after death, in the world beyond.
An ochre robe tied 'round their necks,
many with evil qualities
— unrestrained, evil —
rearise, because of their evil acts,
in hell.
Better to eat an iron ball
— glowing, aflame —
than that, unprincipled &
unrestrained,
you should eat the alms of the country.
§ 49. {Iti 2.22; Iti 43}
[Alternate translation: Ireland]
This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Overcome by two viewpoints, some human & divine beings adhere, other human & divine beings slip right past, while those with vision see.
"And how do some adhere? Human & divine beings enjoy becoming, delight in becoming, are satisfied with becoming. When the Dhamma is being taught for the sake of the cessation of becoming, their minds do not take to it, are not calmed by it, do not settle on it or become resolved on it. This is how some adhere.
"And how do some slip right past? Some, feeling horrified, humiliated, & disgusted with that very becoming, relish non-becoming: 'When this self, at the break-up of the body, after death, perishes & is destroyed, and does not exist after death, that is peaceful, that is exquisite, that is sufficiency!' This is how some slip right past.
"And how do those with vision see? There is the case where a monk sees what has come into being as come into being. Seeing what has come into being as come into being, he practices for disenchantment with what has come into being, dispassion toward what has come into being, cessation of what has come into being. This is how those with vision see."[1]
Those, having seen
what's come to be
as what's come to be,
and what's gone beyond
what's come to be,
are released in line
with what's come to be,
through the exhaustion of craving
for becoming.
If they've comprehended
what's come to be,
and are free from the craving
for becoming & non-,
with the non-becoming
of what's come to be,
monks come
to no further becoming.
Note
1.
This discourse illustrates, in a technical fashion, the function of appropriate attention explained in the note to §16. SN 12.15 presents the same point from a different perspective: "This world takes as its object a polarity, that of existence & non-existence. But when one sees the origination of the world (= the six senses and their objects) as it actually is with right discernment, 'non-existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one. When one sees the cessation of the world as it actually is with right discernment, 'existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one. By & large, this world is in bondage to attachments, clingings, & biases. But one such as this does not get involved with or cling to these attachments, clingings, fixations of awareness, biases, or obsessions; nor is he resolved on 'my self.' He has no uncertainty or doubt that, when there is arising, only stress is arising; and that when there is passing away, stress is passing away. In this, his knowledge is independent of others."
Hết phần Kinh Phật Thuyết Như Vậy (Chương 1 đến chương 2) (Itivuttaka)

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