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Anāpānasaṃyutta

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Dịch giả: Bhikkhu Boddhi

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ONE THING
1 (1) One Thing


At Sāvatthī. There the Blessed One said this:
“Bhikkhus, one thing, when developed and cultivated, is of great fruit and benefit. What one thing? Mindfulness of breathing. And how, bhikkhus, is mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated so that it is of great fruit and benefit?
“Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and set up mindfulness in front of him, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out.289
“Breathing in long, he knows: ‘I breathe in long’; or breathing out long, he knows: ‘I breathe out long.’ Breathing in short, he knows: ‘I breathe in short’; or breathing out short, he knows: ‘I breathe out short.’ He trains thus: ‘Experiencing the whole body, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Experiencing the whole body, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Tranquillizing the bodily formation, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Tranquillizing the bodily formation, I will breathe out.’290 [312]
“He trains thus: ‘Experiencing rapture, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Experiencing rapture, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Experiencing happiness, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Experiencing happiness, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mental formation, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mental formation, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Tranquillizing the mental formation, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Tranquillizing the mental formation, I will breathe out.’291
“He trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mind, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mind, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Gladdening the mind, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Gladdening the mind, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Concentrating the mind, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Concentrating the mind, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Liberating the mind, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Liberating the mind,
I will breathe out.’292
“He trains thus: ‘Contemplating impermanence, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating impermanence, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Contemplating fading away, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating fading away, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Contemplating cessation, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating cessation, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’293
“It is, bhikkhus, when mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated in this way that it is of great fruit and benefit.”
2 (2) Factors of Enlightenment
“Bhikkhus, mindfulness of breathing, when developed and cultivated, is of great fruit and benefit. And how, bhikkhus, is mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated so that it is of great fruit and benefit?
“Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness accompanied by mindfulness of breathing, based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release. He develops the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states … [313] … the enlightenment factor of equanimity accompanied by mindfulness of breathing, based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release.
“It is in this way, bhikkhus, that mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated so that it is of great fruit and benefit.”
3 (3) Simple Version
“Bhikkhus, mindfulness of breathing, when developed and cultivated, is of great fruit and benefit. And how, bhikkhus, is mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated so that it is of great fruit and benefit?
“Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and set up mindfulness in front of him, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out…. (all as in §1) … He trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’
“It is in this way, bhikkhus, that mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated so that it is of great fruit and benefit.”
(4) Fruits (1)
(All as in preceding sutta, with the following addition:)
[314] “When, bhikkhus, mindfulness of breathing has been developed and cultivated in this way, one of two fruits may be expected: either final knowledge in this very life or, if there is a residue of clinging, the state of nonreturning.”
(5) Fruits (2)
(All as in §3, with the following addition:)
“When, bhikkhus, mindfulness of breathing has been developed and cultivated in this way, seven fruits and benefits may be expected. What are the seven fruits and benefits?
“One attains final knowledge early in this very life.
“If one does not attain final knowledge early in this very life, then one attains final knowledge at the time of death.
“If one does not attain final knowledge early in this very life or at the time of death, then with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters one becomes an attainer of Nibbāna in the interval.
“If one does not attain final knowledge early in this very life … or become an attainer of Nibbāna in the interval, then with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters one becomes an attainer of Nibbāna upon landing.
“If one does not attain final knowledge early in this very life … or become an attainer of Nibbāna upon landing, then with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters one becomes an attainer of Nibbāna without exertion.
“If one does not attain final knowledge early in this very life … or become an attainer of Nibbāna without exertion, then with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters one becomes an attainer of Nibbāna with exertion.
“If one does not attain final knowledge early in this very life … or become an attainer of Nibbāna with exertion, then with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters one becomes one bound upstream, heading towards the Akaniṭṭha realm.
“When, bhikkhus, mindfulness of breathing has been developed and cultivated in this way, these seven fruits and benefits may be expected.”
(6) Ariṭṭha
At Sāvatthī. There the Blessed One said this:
“Bhikkhus, do you develop mindfulness of breathing?”
When this was said, the Venerable Ariṭṭha said to the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, I develop mindfulness of breathing.” [315]
“But in what way, Ariṭṭha, do you develop mindfulness of breathing?”
“I have abandoned sensual desire for past sensual pleasures, venerable sir, I have gotten rid of sensual desire for future sensual pleasures, and I have thoroughly dispelled perceptions of aversion towards things internally and externally. Just mindful I breathe in, mindful I breathe out. It is in this way, venerable sir, that I develop mindfulness of breathing.”
“That is mindfulness of breathing, Ariṭṭha, I do not say that it is not. But as to how mindfulness of breathing is fulfilled in detail, Ariṭṭha, listen and attend closely, I will speak.”294
“Yes, venerable sir,” the Venerable Ariṭṭha replied. The Blessed One said this:
“And how, Ariṭṭha, is mindfulness of breathing fulfilled in detail? Here, Ariṭṭha, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and set up mindfulness in front of him, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out…. He trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’
“It is in this way, Ariṭṭha, that mindfulness of breathing is fulfilled in detail.”
(7) Mahākappina
At Sāvatthī. Now on that occasion the Venerable Mahākappina was sitting not far from the Blessed One, with his legs folded crosswise, holding his
body straight, having set up mindfulness in front of him. The Blessed One saw him sitting nearby, with his legs folded crosswise, his body straight, having set up mindfulness in front of him. Having seen him, he addressed the bhikkhus thus:
“Bhikkhus, do you see any shaking or trembling in this bhikkhu’s body?”
“Venerable sir, whenever we see that venerable one, whether he is sitting in the midst of the Sarigha or sitting alone in private, [316] we never see any shaking or trembling in that venerable one’s body.”
“Bhikkhus, that bhikkhu gains at will, without trouble or difficulty, that concentration through the development and cultivation of which no shaking or trembling occurs in the body, and no shaking or trembling occurs in the mind. And what concentration is it through the development and cultivation of which no shaking or trembling occurs in the body, and no shaking or trembling occurs in the mind?
“It is, bhikkhus, when concentration by mindfulness of breathing 295 has been developed and cultivated that no shaking or trembling occurs in the body, and no shaking or trembling occurs in the mind. And how, bhikkhus, is concentration by mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated so that no shaking or trembling occurs in the body, and no shaking or trembling occurs in the mind?
“Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and set up mindfulness in front of him, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out…. He trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’
“It is, bhikkhus, when concentration by mindfulness of breathing has been developed and cultivated in this way that no shaking or trembling occurs in the body, and no shaking or trembling occurs in the mind.”
(8) The Simile of the Lamp
“Bhikkhus, concentration by mindfulness of breathing, when developed and cultivated, is of great fruit and benefit. And how, bhikkhus, is concentration by mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated so that it is of great fruit and benefit? [317]
“Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and set up mindfulness in front of him, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out…. He trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’
“It is in this way, bhikkhus, that concentration by mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated so that it is of great fruit and benefit.
“I too, bhikkhus, before my enlightenment, while I was still a bodhisatta, not yet fully enlightened, generally dwelt in this dwelling. While I generally dwelt in this dwelling, neither my body nor my eyes became fatigued and my mind, by not clinging, was liberated from the taints.
“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May neither my body nor my eyes become fatigued and may my mind, by not clinging, be liberated from the taints,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.296
“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May the memories and intentions connected with the household life be abandoned by me,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.
“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes:297 ‘May I dwell perceiving the repulsive in the unrepulsive,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to. If a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May I dwell perceiving the unrepulsive in the repulsive,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to. If a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May I dwell perceiving the repulsive in the unrepulsive and the repulsive,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to. If a bhikkhu wishes: [318] ‘May I dwell perceiving the
unrepulsive in the repulsive and the unrepulsive,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to. If a bhikkhu wishes: ‘Avoiding both the unrepulsive and the repulsive, may I dwell equanimous, mindful and clearly comprehending,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.
“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May I, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, enter and dwell in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by thought and examination, with rapture and happiness born of seclusion,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.
“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May I, with the subsiding of thought and examination, enter and dwell in the second jhāna, which has internal confidence and unification of mind, is without thought and examination, and has rapture and happiness born of concentration,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.
“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May I, with the fading away as well of rapture, dwell equanimous and, mindful and clearly comprehending, may I experience happiness with the body; may I enter and dwell in the third jhāna of which the noble ones declare: “He is equanimous, mindful, one who dwells happily,” ’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.
“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May I, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous passing away of joy and displeasure, enter and dwell in the fourth jhāna, which is neither painful nor pleasant and includes the purification of mindfulness by equanimity,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.
“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May I, with the complete transcendence of perceptions of forms, with the passing away of perceptions of sensory impingement, with nonattention to perceptions of diversity, aware that “space is infinite,” enter and dwell in the base of the
infinity of space,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.
“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May I, by completely transcending the base of the infinity of space, [319] aware that “consciousness is infinite,” enter and dwell in the base of the infinity of consciousness,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.
“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May I, by completely transcending the base of the infinity of consciousness, aware that “there is nothing,” enter and dwell in the base of nothingness, ’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.
“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May I, by completely transcending the base of nothingness, enter and dwell in the base of neither- perception-nor-nonperception,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.
“Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu wishes: ‘May I, by completely transcending the base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception, enter and dwell in the cessation of perception and feeling,’ this same concentration by mindfulness of breathing should be closely attended to.
“When, bhikkhus, the concentration by mindfulness of breathing has been developed and cultivated in this way, if he feels a pleasant feeling, he understands: ‘It is impermanent’; he understands: ‘It is not held to’; he understands: ‘It is not delighted in.’298 If he feels a painful feeling, he understands: ‘It is impermanent’; he understands: ‘It is not held to’; he understands: ‘It is not delighted in.’ If he feels a neither-painful-nor- pleasant feeling, he understands: ‘It is impermanent’; he understands: ‘It is not held to’; he understands: ‘It is not delighted in.’
“If he feels a pleasant feeling, he feels it detached; if he feels a painful feeling, he feels it detached; if he feels a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, he feels it detached.
“When he feels a feeling terminating with the body, he understands: ‘I feel a feeling terminating with the body.’ When he feels a feeling
terminating with life, he understands: ‘I feel a feeling terminating with life.’ He understands: ‘With the breakup of the body, following the exhaustion of life, all that is felt, not being delighted in, will become cool right here.’
“Just as, bhikkhus, an oil lamp burns in dependence on the oil and the wick, and with the exhaustion of the oil and the wick it is extinguished through lack of fuel, so too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu [320] feels a feeling terminating with the body … terminating with life … He understands: ‘With the breakup of the body, following the exhaustion of life, all that is felt, not being delighted in, will become cool right here.’”
(9) At Vesālī
Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Vesālī in the Great Wood in the Hall with the Peaked Roof.299 Now on that occasion the Blessed One was giving the bhikkhus a talk on foulness in many ways, was speaking in praise of foulness, was speaking in praise of the development of foulness meditation.300
Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus, I wish to go into seclusion for half a month. I should not be approached by anyone except the one who brings me almsfood.”301
“Yes, venerable sir,” those bhikkhus replied, and no one approached the Blessed One except the one who brought him almsfood.
Then those bhikkhus, thinking: “The Blessed One was giving a talk on foulness in many ways, was speaking in praise of foulness, was speaking in praise of the development of foulness meditation,” dwelt devoted to the development of foulness meditation in its many aspects and factors. Being repelled, humiliated, and disgusted with this body, they sought for an assailant. In one day ten bhikkhus used the knife, or in one day twenty or thirty bhikkhus used the knife.302
Then, when that half-month had passed, the Blessed One emerged from seclusion and addressed the Venerable Ānanda: “Why, Ānanda, does the Bhikkhu Sarigha look so diminished?” 303
“Venerable sir, that is because [the Blessed One had given a talk on foulness in many ways, had spoken in praise of foulness, [321] had spoken in praise of the development of foulness meditation, and those bhikkhus,]304 thinking: ‘The Blessed One was giving a talk on foulness in many ways, was speaking in praise of foulness, was speaking in praise of the development of foulness meditation,’ dwelt devoted to the development of foulness meditation in its many aspects and factors. Being repelled, humiliated, and disgusted with this body, they sought for an assailant. In one day ten bhikkhus used the knife, or in one day twenty or thirty bhikkhus used the knife. It would be good, venerable sir, if the Blessed One would explain another method so that this Bhikkhu Sarigha may be established in final knowledge.”
“Well then, Ānanda, assemble in the attendance hall all the bhikkhus who are living in dependence on Vesālī.”
“Yes, venerable sir,” the Venerable Ānanda replied, and he assembled in the attendance hall all the bhikkhus who were living in dependence on Vesālī, as many as there were. Then he approached the Blessed One and said to him: “The Bhikkhu Sarigha has assembled, venerable sir. Let the Blessed One come at his own convenience.”
Then the Blessed One went to the attendance hall, sat down in the appointed seat, and addressed the bhikkhus thus:
“Bhikkhus, this concentration by mindfulness of breathing, when developed and cultivated, is peaceful and sublime, an ambrosial pleasant dwelling, and it disperses and quells right on the spot evil unwholesome states whenever they arise.305
“Just as, bhikkhus, in the last month of the hot season, when a mass of dust and dirt has swirled up, a great rain cloud out of season disperses it and quells it on the spot,306 so too concentration by mindfulness of breathing, when developed and cultivated, is peaceful and sublime, [322] an ambrosial
pleasant dwelling, and it disperses and quells on the spot evil unwholesome states whenever they arise. And how is this so?
“Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and set up mindfulness in front of him, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out…. He trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’
“It is in this way, bhikkhus, that concentration by mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated so that it is peaceful and sublime, an ambrosial pleasant dwelling, and it disperses and quells on the spot evil unwholesome states whenever they arise.”
(10) Kimbila
Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Kimbilā in the Bamboo Grove. There the Blessed One addressed the Venerable Kimbila thus: “How is it now, Kimbila, that concentration by mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated so that it is of great fruit and benefit?”
When this was said, the Venerable Kimbila was silent. A second time…A third time the Blessed One addressed the Venerable Kimbila: “How is it now, Kimbila, that concentration by mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated so that it is of great fruit and benefit?” A third time the Venerable Kimbila was silent. [323]
When this happened, the Venerable Ānanda said to the Blessed One: “Now is the time for this, Blessed One! Now is the time for this, Fortunate One! The Blessed One should speak on concentration by mindfulness of breathing. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the bhikkhus will remember it.”
“Well then, Ānanda, listen and attend closely, I will speak.”
“Yes, venerable sir,” the Venerable Ānanda replied. The Blessed One said this:
“And how, Ānanda, is concentration by mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated so that it is of great fruit and benefit? Here, Ānanda, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and set up mindfulness in front of him, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out…. He trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’
Contemplation of the body)
“Whenever,307 Ānanda, a bhikkhu, when breathing in long, knows: ‘I breathe in long’; or, when breathing out long, knows: ‘I breathe out long’; when breathing in short, knows: ‘I breathe in short’; or, when breathing out short, knows: ‘I breathe out short’; when he trains thus: ‘Experiencing the whole body, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Experiencing the whole body, I will breathe out’; when he trains thus: ‘Tranquillizing the bodily formation, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Tranquillizing the bodily formation, I will breathe out’—on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. For what reason? I call this a certain kind of body, Ānanda, that is, breathing in and breathing out.308 Therefore, Ānanda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.
(ii. Contemplation of feelings)
“Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu trains thus: ‘Experiencing rapture, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Experiencing rapture, I will breathe out’; when he trains thus: ‘Experiencing happiness, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Experiencing happiness, I will breathe out’; when he trains
thus: ‘Experiencing the mental formation, [324] I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mental formation, I will breathe out’; when he trains thus: ‘Tranquillizing the mental formation, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Tranquillizing the mental formation, I will breathe out’—on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. For what reason? I call this a certain kind of feeling, Ānanda, that is, close attention to breathing in and breathing out.309 Therefore, Ānanda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.
(iii. Contemplation of mind)
“Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mind, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mind, I will breathe out’; when he trains thus: ‘Gladdening the mind, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Gladdening the mind, I will breathe out’; when he trains thus: ‘Concentrating the mind, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Concentrating the mind, I will breathe out’; when he trains thus: ‘Liberating the mind, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Liberating the mind, I will breathe out’—on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating mind in mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. For what reason? I say, Ānanda, that there is no development of concentration by mindfulness of breathing for one who is muddled and who lacks clear comprehension. Therefore, Ānanda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating mind in mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.
(iv. Contemplation of phenomena)
“Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu trains thus: ‘Contemplating impermanence, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Contemplating impermanence, I will breathe out’; when he trains thus: ‘Contemplating fading away, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Contemplating fading away, I will breathe out’; when he trains thus: ‘Contemplating cessation, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Contemplating cessation, I will breathe out’; when he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; when he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out’—on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. Having seen with wisdom the abandoning of covetousness and displeasure, he is one who looks on closely with equanimity.310 Therefore, Ānanda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. [325]
“Suppose, Ānanda, at a crossroads there is a great mound of soil. If a cart or chariot comes from the east, west, north, or south, it would flatten that mound of soil.311 So too, Ānanda, when a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, feelings in feelings, mind in mind, phenomena in phenomena, he flattens evil unwholesome states.”
THE SECOND SUBCHAPTER
(Ananda)
(1) At Icchānaṅgala
On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Icchānarigala in the Icchānarigala Wood. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus:
“Bhikkhus, I wish to go into seclusion for three months. I should not be approached by anyone except the one who brings me almsfood.”
“Yes, venerable sir,” those bhikkhus replied, and no one approached the Blessed One except the one who brought him almsfood. [326]
Then, when those three months had passed, the Blessed One emerged from seclusion and addressed the bhikkhus thus:
“Bhikkhus, if wanderers of other sects ask you: ‘In what dwelling, friends, did the Blessed One generally dwell during the rains residence?’— being asked thus, you should answer those wanderers thus: ‘During the rains residence, friends, the Blessed One generally dwelt in the concentration by mindfulness of breathing.’
“Here, bhikkhus, mindful I breathe in, mindful I breathe out. When breathing in long I know: ‘I breathe in long’; when breathing out long I know: ‘I breathe out long.’ When breathing in short I know: ‘I breathe in short’; when breathing out short I know: ‘I breathe out short.’ I know: ‘Experiencing the whole body I will breathe in.’… I know: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’312
“If anyone, bhikkhus, speaking rightly could say of anything: ‘It is a noble dwelling, a divine dwelling, the Tathāgata’s dwelling,’ it is of concentration by mindfulness of breathing that one could rightly say this.
“Bhikkhus, those bhikkhus who are trainees, who have not attained their mind’s ideal, who dwell aspiring for the unsurpassed security from bondage: for them concentration by mindfulness of breathing, when developed and cultivated, leads to the destruction of the taints. Those bhikkhus who are arahants, whose taints are destroyed, who have lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached their own goal, utterly destroyed the fetters of existence, those completely liberated through final knowledge: for them concentration by mindfulness of breathing, when developed and cultivated, leads to a pleasant dwelling in this very life and to mindfulness and clear comprehension.313
“If anyone, bhikkhus, speaking rightly could say of anything: ‘It is a noble dwelling, a divine dwelling, the Tathāgata’s dwelling,’ it is of concentration by mindfulness of breathing that one could rightly say this.” [327]
(2) In Perplexity
On one occasion the Venerable Lomasavarigīsa was dwelling among the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu in Nigrodha’s Park. Then Mahānāma the Sakyan approached the Venerable Lomasavarigīsa, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:
“Is it the case, venerable sir, that the dwelling of a trainee is itself the same as the Tathāgata’s dwelling, or is it rather that the dwelling of a trainee is one thing and the Tathāgata’s dwelling is another?”
“It is not the case, friend Mahānāma, that the dwelling of a trainee is itself the same as the Tathāgata’s dwelling; rather, the dwelling of a trainee is one thing and the Tathāgata’s dwelling is another.
“Friend Mahānāma, those bhikkhus who are trainees, who have not attained their mind’s ideal, who dwell aspiring for the unsurpassed security from bondage, dwell having abandoned the five hindrances.314 What five? The hindrances of sensual desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and
remorse, and doubt. Those bhikkhus who are trainees … dwell having abandoned these five hindrances.
“But, friend Mahānāma, for those bhikkhus who are arahants, whose taints are destroyed, who have lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached their own goal, utterly destroyed the fetters of existence, become completely liberated through final knowledge, the five hindrances have been abandoned, cut off at the root, made like palm stumps, obliterated so that they are no more subject to future arising.315 What five? The hindrances of sensual desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and remorse, and doubt. [328] For those bhikkhus who are arahants … these five hindrances have been abandoned, cut off at the root, made like palm stumps, obliterated so that they are no more subject to future arising.
“By the following method too, friend Mahānāma, it can be understood how the dwelling of a trainee is one thing and the Tathāgata’s dwelling is another.
“On this one occasion, friend Mahānāma, the Blessed One was dwelling at Icchānarigala in the Icchānarigala Wood. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: ‘Bhikkhus, I wish to go into seclusion for three months. I should not be approached by anyone except the one who brings me almsfood.’
(He here repeats the entire contents of the preceding sutta, down to:)
“‘If anyone, bhikkhus, speaking rightly could say of anything: “It is a noble dwelling, a divine dwelling, the Tathāgata’s dwelling,” it is of concentration by mindfulness of breathing that one could rightly say this.’
“By this method, friend Mahānāma, it can be understood how the dwelling of a trainee is one thing and the Tathāgata’s dwelling is another.”
(3) Ananda (1)
At Sāvatthī. Then the Venerable Ānanda approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him: [329]
“Venerable sir, is there one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things? And four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things? And seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things?”
“There is, Ānanda, one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things; and four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things; and seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things.”
“But, venerable sir, what is the one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things; and the four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things; and the seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things?”
“Concentration by mindfulness of breathing, Ānanda, is the one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils the four establishments of mindfulness. The four establishments of mindfulness, when developed and cultivated, fulfil the seven factors of enlightenment. The seven factors of enlightenment, when developed and cultivated, fulfil true knowledge and liberation.
Fulfilling the four establishments of mindfulness)
“How, Ānanda, is concentration by mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated so that it fulfils the four establishments of mindfulness? Here, Ānanda, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and set up mindfulness in front of him, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out…. He trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’
“Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu, when breathing in long, knows: ‘I breathe in long’ … (as in §10) … when he trains thus: ‘Tranquillizing the bodily formation, I will breathe out’—on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending,
mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. For what reason? I call this a certain kind of body, Ānanda, that is,
[330] breathing in and breathing out. Therefore, Ānanda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.
“Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu trains thus: ‘Experiencing rapture, I will breathe in’ … when he trains thus: ‘Tranquillizing the mental formation, I will breathe out’—on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. For what reason? I call this a certain kind of feeling, Ānanda, that is, close attention to breathing in and breathing out. Therefore, Ānanda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.
“Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mind, I will breathe in’ … when he trains thus: ‘Liberating the mind, I will breathe out’—on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating mind in mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. For what reason? I say, Ānanda, that there is no development of concentration by mindfulness of breathing for one who is muddled and who lacks clear comprehension. Therefore, Ānanda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating mind in mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.
“Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu trains thus: ‘Contemplating impermanence, I will breathe in’ … when he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out’—on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. Having seen with wisdom what is the abandoning of covetousness and displeasure, [331] he is one who looks on closely with equanimity. Therefore, Ānanda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating
phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.
“It is, Ānanda, when concentration by mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated in this way that it fulfils the four establishments of mindfulness.
(ii. Fulfilling the seven factors of enlightenment)
“And how, Ānanda, are the four establishments of mindfulness developed and cultivated so that they fulfil the seven factors of enlightenment?
“Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, on that occasion unmuddled mindfulness is established in that bhikkhu. 316 Whenever, Ānanda, unmuddled mindfulness has been established in a bhikkhu, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.
“Dwelling thus mindfully, he discriminates that Dhamma with wisdom, examines it, makes an investigation of it. Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu dwelling thus mindfully discriminates that Dhamma with wisdom, examines it, makes an investigation of it, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.
“While he discriminates that Dhamma with wisdom, examines it, makes an investigation of it, [332] his energy is aroused without slackening. Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu’s energy is aroused without slackening as he discriminates that Dhamma with wisdom, examines it, makes an investigation of it, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of energy is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the
enlightenment factor of energy; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of energy goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.
“When his energy is aroused, there arises in him spiritual rapture. Whenever, Ānanda, spiritual rapture arises in a bhikkhu whose energy is aroused, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of rapture is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of rapture; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of rapture goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.
“For one whose mind is uplifted by rapture the body becomes tranquil and the mind becomes tranquil. Whenever, Ānanda, the body becomes tranquil and the mind becomes tranquil in a bhikkhu whose mind is uplifted by rapture, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of tranquillity is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of tranquillity; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of tranquillity goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.
“For one whose body is tranquil and who is happy the mind becomes concentrated. Whenever, Ānanda, the mind becomes concentrated in a bhikkhu whose body is tranquil and who is happy, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of concentration is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of concentration; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of concentration goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.
“He becomes one who closely looks on with equanimity at the mind thus concentrated. Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu becomes one who closely looks on with equanimity at the mind thus concentrated, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of equanimity is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of equanimity; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of equanimity goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.
“Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in feelings
… mind in mind … phenomena in phenomena, on that occasion unmuddled mindfulness is established in that bhikkhu. [333] Whenever, Ānanda, unmuddled mindfulness has been established in a bhikkhu, on that occasion
the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.
(All should be elaborated as in the case of the first establishment of mindfulness.)
“He becomes one who closely looks on with equanimity at the mind thus concentrated. Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu becomes one who closely looks on with equanimity at the mind thus concentrated, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of equanimity is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of equanimity; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of equanimity goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.
“It is, Ānanda, when the four establishments of mindfulness are developed and cultivated in this way that they fulfil the seven factors of enlightenment.
(iii. Fulfilling true knowledge and liberation)
“How, Ānanda, are the seven factors of enlightenment developed and cultivated so that they fulfil true knowledge and liberation?
“Here, Ānanda, a bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness, which is based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release. He develops the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states … the enlightenment factor of energy … the enlightenment factor of rapture … the enlightenment factor of tranquillity … the enlightenment factor of concentration … the enlightenment factor of equanimity, which is based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release.
“It is, Ānanda, when the seven factors of enlightenment are developed and cultivated in this way that they fulfil true knowledge and liberation.”
(4) Ananda (2)
Then the Venerable Ānanda approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Blessed One then said to the Venerable Ānanda:
“Ānanda, is there one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things? And four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things? And seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things?”
“Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Blessed One….”
“There is, Ānanda, one thing which, when developed and cultivated,
[334] fulfils four things; and four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things; and seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things.
“And what, Ānanda, is the one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things; and the four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things; and the seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things? Concentration by mindfulness of breathing, Ānanda, is the one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils the four establishments of mindfulness. The four establishments of mindfulness, when developed and cultivated, fulfil the seven factors of enlightenment. The seven factors of enlightenment, when developed and cultivated, fulfil true knowledge and liberation.
“And how, Ānanda, is concentration by mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated so that it fulfils the four establishments of mindfulness?
“Here, Ānanda, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest … (all as in the preceding sutta down to:) … It is, Ānanda, when the seven factors of enlightenment are developed and cultivated in this way that they fulfil true knowledge and liberation.”
(5) Bhikkhus (1)
(Identical with §13 except that “a number of bhikkhus” are the interlocutors in place of Ananda.) [335]
(6) Bhikkhus (2)
(Identical with §14 except that “a number of bhikkhus” are the interlocutors in place of Ananda.) [336-40]
(7) The Fetters
“Bhikkhus, concentration by mindfulness of breathing, when developed and cultivated, leads to the abandoning of the fetters.”
(8) The Underlying Tendencies
“… leads to the uprooting of the underlying tendencies.”
(9) The Course
“… leads to the full understanding of the course.”
(10) The Destruction of the Taints
“… leads to the destruction of the taints.
“And how, bhikkhus, is concentration by mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated so that it leads to the abandoning of the fetters, to the uprooting of the underlying tendencies, to the full understanding of the course, to the destruction of the taints?
“Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise,
straightened his body, and set up mindfulness in front of him, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out…. [341] He trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’
“It is in this way, bhikkhus, that concentration by mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated so that it leads to the abandoning of the fetters, to the uprooting of the underlying tendencies, to the full understanding of the course, to the destruction of the taints.”
[342]
1
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