Để sống hạnh phúc bạn cần rất ít, và tất cả đều sẵn có trong chính bạn, trong phương cách suy nghĩ của bạn. (Very little is needed to make a happy life; it is all within yourself, in your way of thinking.)Marcus Aurelius
Người ngu nghĩ mình ngu, nhờ vậy thành có trí. Người ngu tưởng có trí, thật xứng gọi chí ngu.Kinh Pháp cú (Kệ số 63)
Sự ngu ngốc có nghĩa là luôn lặp lại những việc làm như cũ nhưng lại chờ đợi những kết quả khác hơn. (Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.)Albert Einstein
Khi gặp phải thảm họa trong đời sống, ta có thể phản ứng theo hai cách. Hoặc là thất vọng và rơi vào thói xấu tự hủy hoại mình, hoặc vận dụng thách thức đó để tìm ra sức mạnh nội tại của mình. Nhờ vào những lời Phật dạy, tôi đã có thể chọn theo cách thứ hai. (When we meet real tragedy in life, we can react in two ways - either by losing hope and falling into self-destructive habits, or by using the challenge to find our inner strength. Thanks to the teachings of Buddha, I have been able to take this second way.)Đức Đạt-lai Lạt-ma XIV
Nếu muốn tỏa sáng trong tương lai, bạn phải lấp lánh từ hôm nay.Sưu tầm
Những chướng ngại không thể làm cho bạn dừng lại. Nếu gặp phải một bức tường, đừng quay lại và bỏ cuộc, hãy tìm cách trèo lên, vượt qua hoặc đi vòng qua nó. (Obstacles don’t have to stop you. If you run into a wall, don’t turn around and give up. Figure out how to climb it, go through it, or work around it. )Michael Jordon
Hạnh phúc chân thật là sự yên vui, thanh thản mà mỗi chúng ta có thể đạt đến bất chấp những khó khăn hay nghịch cảnh. Tủ sách Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn
Để chế ngự bản thân, ta sử dụng khối óc; để chế ngự người khác, hãy sử dụng trái tim. (To handle yourself, use your head; to handle others, use your heart. )Donald A. Laird
Khi bạn dấn thân hoàn thiện các nhu cầu của tha nhân, các nhu cầu của bạn cũng được hoàn thiện như một hệ quả.Đức Đạt-lai Lạt-ma XIV
Hành động thiếu tri thức là nguy hiểm, tri thức mà không hành động là vô ích. (Action without knowledge is dangerous, knowledge without action is useless. )Walter Evert Myer

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Lời Phật dạy về sự hòa hợp trong cộng đồng và xã hội - VI. Lợi lạc cho mình và lợi lạc cho người khác

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Introduction

In Part VI we move beyond binary friendships to see how the scriptures of Early Buddhism treat the relationship between the individual and those that come within his or her sphere of influence. Since the Buddha was primarily addressing monastics, the texts prioritize monastic concerns, but even these have wider implications. The first selection, Text VI,1, draws a contrast between the fool and the wise person, asserting that the fool — who is distinguished by bodily, verbal, and mental misconduct — is the cause of all calamities and misfortunes, while the wise person — distinguished by good conduct of body, speech, and mind — brings no calamity and misfortune. Text VI,2 continues along the same track, but differentiates between the bad person and the good person on the basis of a larger set of criteria that explicitly refer to their respective impacts on others. The criteria comprise their dispositional qualities (which may be considered personal), their teachers and companions, their decisions, the way they counsel others, their speech, their action, their views, and their manner of giving.

Several earlier texts spoke of greed, hatred, and delusion as the roots of unwholesome action, and their opposites as the roots of wholesome action. In Text VI,3, in a conversation with a brahmin, the Buddha makes this correlation more specific. He explains that one overcome by greed, hatred, and delusion acts for his or her own affliction, the affliction of others, and the affliction of both, and again he states that such motivation underlies misconduct of body, speech, and mind. Moreover, one whose mind is overcome by these mental states cannot even distinguish what is good and what is bad, much less act appropriately. When they are abandoned, however, one can then make the necessary moral distinctions and act for the benefit of both oneself and others.

Text VI,4(1) distinguishes four kinds of persons on the basis of whether they are practicing (1) for their own welfare but not the welfare of others; (2) for the welfare of others but not their own welfare; (3) for the welfare of neither; and (4) for the welfare of both. The Buddha extols the one practicing for the welfare of both as “the foremost, the best, the preeminent, the supreme, and the finest of these four persons.” It may seem strange that he ranks the one practicing for his own welfare but not the welfare of others over the one practicing for the welfare of others but not his own welfare, which seems directly contrary to some interpretations of the bodhisattva ideal. When, however, the intention is brought to light, the apparent contradiction vanishes.

The reason for this ranking emerges from Texts VI,4(2) and VI,4(3), which elaborate on the four types of persons in relation to the removal of lust, hatred, and delusion and the observance of the five training rules. It turns out that the person who neglects his or her own welfare is one who makes no effort to overcome lust, hatred, and delusion and does not observe the five precepts. Since such a person will continue to act in the grip of the defilements and to engage in unwholesome actions, despite professed benevolent intentions, his or her deeds ultimately bring harm to others as well.

The next two sections in this chapter, Texts VI,5 and VI,6, explain with reference to the monk and the lay follower, respectively, how one benefits oneself and others. Both sections relate the idea of “benefiting others” to instructing and guiding others in the Dhamma. Finally, in Text VI,7, the Buddha declares a person of great wisdom to be one who thinks of “his own welfare, the welfare of others, the welfare of both, and the welfare of the whole world.” Discourses like this certainly show that an altruistic perspective was already integral to Early Buddhism, and that the Mahāyāna simply gave greater prominence to this attitude, perhaps in reaction to regressive tendencies that appeared among some of the schools that evolved out of the early teachings.

VI. One’s Own Good and the Good of Others

1. THE FOOL AND THE WISE PERSON

“Monks, one who possesses three qualities should be known as a fool. What three? Bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a fool.

One who possesses three qualities should be known as a wise person. What three? Bodily good conduct, verbal good conduct, and mental good conduct. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a wise person.

“Whatever perils arise, all arise on account of the fool, not on account of the wise person. Whatever calamities arise, all arise on account of the fool, not on account of the wise person. Whatever misfortunes arise, all arise on account of the fool, not on account of the wise person. Just as a fire that starts in a house made of reeds or grass burns down even a house with a peaked roof, plastered inside and out; so too, whatever perils arise . . . all arise on account of the fool, not on account of the wise person. Thus the fool brings peril, the wise person brings no peril; the fool brings calamity, the wise person brings no calamity; the fool brings misfortune, the wise person brings no misfortune. There is no peril from the wise person; there is no calamity from the wise person; there is no misfortune from the wise person.

“Therefore, monks, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will avoid the three qualities that make one known as a fool, and we will undertake and practice the three qualities that make one known as a wise person.’ It is in this way that you should train yourselves.”

(AN 3:1–2, NDB 201–2)

2. THE BAD PERSON AND THE GOOD PERSON

“Monks, a bad person is possessed of bad qualities; he associates as a bad person, he decides as a bad person, he counsels as a bad person, he speaks as a bad person, he acts as a bad person, he holds views as a bad person, and he gives gifts as a bad person.

“And how is a bad person possessed of bad qualities? Here a bad person has no faith, no shame, no fear of wrongdoing; he is unlearned, lazy, forgetful, and unwise. That is how a bad person is possessed of bad qualities.

“And how does a bad person associate as a bad person? Here a bad person has for friends and companions those ascetics and brahmins who have no faith, no shame, no fear of wrongdoing; who are unlearned, lazy, forgetful, and unwise. That is how a bad person associates as a bad person.

“And how does a bad person decide as a bad person? Here a bad person decides for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, and for the affliction of both. That is how a bad person decides as a bad person.

“And how does a bad person counsel as a bad person? Here a bad person counsels for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, and for the affliction of both. That is how a bad person counsels as a bad person.

“And how does a bad person speak as a bad person? Here a bad person speaks false speech, divisive speech, harsh speech, and idle chatter. That is how a bad person speaks as a bad person.

“And how does a bad person act as a bad person? Here a bad person destroys life, takes what is not given, and engages in sexual misconduct. That is how a bad person acts as a bad person.

“And how does a bad person hold views as a bad person? Here a bad person holds such a view as this: ‘There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed; no fruit or result of good and bad actions; no this world, no other world; no mother, no father; no beings who are reborn spontaneously; no good and virtuous ascetics and brahmins in the world who have realized for themselves by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’ That is how a bad person holds views as a bad person.

“And how does a bad person give gifts as a bad person? Here a bad person gives a gift carelessly, gives it not with his own hand, gives it without showing respect, gives what is to be discarded, gives it with the view that nothing will come of it. That is how a bad person gives gifts as a bad person.

“That bad person — thus possessed of bad qualities, who thus associates as a bad person, decides as a bad person, counsels as a bad person, speaks as a bad person, acts as a bad person, holds views as a bad person, and gives gifts as a bad person — on the dissolution of the body, after death, is reborn in the destination of bad people. And what is the destination of bad people? It is hell or the animal world. . . .

“Monks, a good person is possessed of good qualities; he associates as a good person, he decides as a good person, he counsels as a good person, he speaks as a good person, he acts as a good person, he holds views as a good person, and he gives gifts as a good person.

“And how is a good person possessed of good qualities? Here a good person has faith, shame, and fear of wrongdoing; he is learned, energetic, mindful, and wise. That is how a good person is possessed of good qualities.

“And how does a good person associate as a good person? Here a good person has for his friends and companions those ascetics and brahmins who have faith, shame, and fear of wrongdoing; who are learned, energetic, mindful, and wise. That is how a good person associates as a good person.

“And how does a good person decide as a good person? Here a good person does not decide for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both. That is how a good person decides as a good person.

“And how does a good person counsel as a good person? Here a good person does not counsel for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both. That is how a good person counsels as a good person.

“And how does a good person speak as a good person? Here a good person abstains from false speech, from divisive speech, from harsh speech, and from idle chatter. That is how a good person speaks as a good person.

“And how does a good person act as a good person? Here a good person abstains from the destruction of life, from taking what is not given, and from sexual misconduct. That is how a good person acts as a good person.

“And how does a good person hold views as a good person? Here a good person holds such a view as this: ‘There is what is given, offered, and sacrificed; there is fruit and result of good and bad actions; there is this world and the other world; there is mother and father; there are beings who are reborn spontaneously; there are good and virtuous ascetics and brahmins in the world who have realized for themselves by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’ That is how a good person holds views as a good person.

“And how does a good person give gifts as a good person? Here a good person gives a gift carefully, gives it with his own hand, gives it showing respect, gives a valuable gift, gives it with the view that something will come of it. That is how a good person gives gifts as a good person.

“That good person — thus possessed of good qualities, who thus associates as a good person, decides as a good person, counsels as a good person, speaks as a good person, acts as a good person, holds views as a good person, and gives gifts as a good person — on the dissolution of the body, after death, is reborn in the destination of good people. And what is the destination of good people? It is greatness among the devas or human beings.”

(from MN 110, MLDB 892–95)

3. THE ROOTS OF HARM AND BENEFIT FOR SELF AND OTHERS

A certain brahmin wanderer approached the Blessed One and said to him: “Master Gotama, it is said: ‘A directly visible Dhamma, a directly visible Dhamma.’ In what way is the Dhamma directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise?”

(1) “Brahmin, one overcome by greed intends for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he experiences mental suffering and dejection. But when greed is abandoned, he does not intend for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he does not experience mental suffering and dejection. One overcome by greed engages in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. But when greed is abandoned, he does not engage in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. One overcome by greed does not understand as it really is his own good, the good of others, or the good of both. But when greed is abandoned, he understands as it really is his own good, the good of others, and the good of both. It is in this way, brahmin, that the Dhamma is directly visible . . . to be personally experienced by the wise.

(2) “Brahmin, one overcome by hatred intends for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he experiences mental suffering and dejection. But when hatred is abandoned, he does not intend for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he does not experience mental suffering and dejection. One overcome by hatred engages in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. But when hatred is abandoned, he does not engage in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. One overcome by hatred does not understand as it really is his own good, the good of others, or the good of both. But when hatred is abandoned, he understands as it really is his own good, the good of others, and the good of both. It is in this way, brahmin, that the Dhamma is directly visible . . . to be personally experienced by the wise.

(3) “One overcome by delusion intends for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he experiences mental suffering and dejection. But when delusion is abandoned, he does not intend for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he does not experience mental suffering and dejection. One overcome by delusion engages in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. But when delusion is abandoned, he does not engage in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. One overcome by delusion does not understand as it really is his own good, the good of others, or the good of both. But when delusion is abandoned, he understands as it really is his own good, the good of others, and the good of both. It is in this way, too, that the Dhamma is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise.”

(AN 3:54, NDB 250–51)

4. FOUR KINDS OF PERSONS IN THE WORLD

(1) The Best Kind of Person

“Monks, there are these four kinds of persons found existing in the world. What four? (1) One who is practicing neither for his own welfare nor for the welfare of others; (2) one who is practicing for the welfare of others but not for his own welfare; (3) one who is practicing for his own welfare but not for the welfare of others; and (4) one who is practicing both for his own welfare and for the welfare of others.

“Suppose a cremation brand was blazing at both ends and smeared with dung in the middle: it could not be used as timber either in the village or in the forest. Just like this, I say, is the person who is practicing neither for his own welfare nor for the welfare of others.

“Monks, the person among these who is practicing for the welfare of others but not for his own welfare is the more excellent and sublime of the [first] two persons. The person practicing for his own welfare but not for the welfare of others is the more excellent and sublime of the [first] three persons. The person practicing both for his own welfare and for the welfare of others is the foremost, the best, the preeminent, the supreme, and the finest of these four persons.

Just as from a cow comes milk, from milk curd, from curd butter, from butter ghee, and from ghee comes cream-of-ghee, which is reckoned the foremost of all these, so the person practicing both for his own welfare and for the welfare of others is the foremost, the best, the preeminent, the supreme, and the finest of these four persons.

“These are the four kinds of persons found existing in the world.”

(AN 4:95, NDB 476–77)

(2) The Removal of Lust, Hatred, and Delusion

“Monks, there are these four kinds of persons found existing in the world. What four? (1) One who is practicing for his own welfare but not for the welfare of others; (2) one who is practicing for the welfare of others but not for his own welfare; (3) one who is practicing neither for his own welfare nor for the welfare of others; and (4) one who is practicing both for his own welfare and for the welfare of others.

(1) “And how is a person practicing for his own welfare but not for the welfare of others? Here, some person practices to remove his own lust, hatred, and delusion but does not encourage others to remove their lust, hatred, and delusion. It is in this way that a person is practicing for his own welfare but not for the welfare of others.

(2) “And how is a person practicing for the welfare of others but not for his own welfare? Here, some person encourages others to remove their lust, hatred, and delusion, but does not practice to remove his own lust, hatred, and delusion. It is in this way that a person is practicing for the welfare of others but not for his own welfare.

(3) “And how is a person practicing neither for his own welfare nor for the welfare of others? Here, some person does not practice to remove his own lust, hatred, and delusion, nor does he encourage others to remove their lust, hatred, and delusion. It is in this way that a person is practicing neither for his own welfare nor for the welfare of others.

(4) “And how is a person practicing both for his own welfare and for the welfare of others? Here, some person practices to remove his own lust, hatred, and delusion, and he encourages others to remove their lust, hatred, and delusion. It is in this way that a person is practicing both for his own welfare and for the welfare of others.

“These, monks, are the four kinds of persons found existing in the world.”

(AN 4:96, NDB 477–78)

(3) The Five Training Rules

“Monks, there are these four kinds of persons found existing in the world. What four? (1) One who is practicing for his own welfare but not for the welfare of others; (2) one who is practicing for the welfare of others but not for his own welfare; (3) one who is practicing neither for his own welfare nor for the welfare of others; and (4) one who is practicing both for his own welfare and for the welfare of others.

(1) “And how is a person practicing for his own welfare but not for the welfare of others? Here, some person himself abstains from the destruction of life but does not encourage others to abstain from the destruction of life. He himself abstains from taking what is not given but does not encourage others to abstain from taking what is not given. He himself abstains from sexual misconduct but does not encourage others to abstain from sexual misconduct. He himself abstains from false speech but does not encourage others to abstain from false speech. He himself abstains from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, but does not encourage others to abstain from them. It is in this way that a person is practicing for his own welfare but not for the welfare of others.

(2) “And how is a person practicing for the welfare of others but not for his own welfare? Here, some person does not himself abstain from the destruction of life but he encourages others to abstain from the destruction of life. . . . He does not himself abstain from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, but he encourages others to abstain from them. It is in this way that a person is practicing for the welfare of others but not for his own welfare.

(3) “And how is a person practicing neither for his own welfare nor for the welfare of others? Here, some person does not himself abstain from the destruction of life and does not encourage others to abstain from the destruction of life. . . . He does not himself abstain from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, and does not encourage others to abstain from them. It is in this way that a person is practicing neither for his own welfare nor for the welfare of others.

(4) “And how is a person practicing both for his own welfare and for the welfare of others? Here, some person himself abstains from the destruction of life and encourages others to abstain from the destruction of life. . . . He himself abstains from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, and encourages others to abstain from them. It is in this way that he is practicing both for his own welfare and for the welfare of others.

“These, monks, are the four kinds of persons found existing in the world.”

(AN 4:99, NDB 479–80)

5. THE MONK

“Monks, possessing five qualities, a monk is practicing both for his own welfare and for the welfare of others. What five? (1) Here, a monk is himself accomplished in virtuous behavior and encourages others to become accomplished in virtuous behavior; (2) he is himself accomplished in concentration and encourages others to become accomplished in concentration; (3) he is himself accomplished in wisdom and encourages others to become accomplished in wisdom; (4) he is himself accomplished in liberation and encourages others to become accomplished in liberation; (5) he is himself accomplished in the knowledge and vision of liberation and encourages others to become accomplished in the knowledge and vision of liberation. Possessing these five qualities, a monk is practicing both for his own welfare and for the welfare of others.”

(AN 5:20, NDB 639–40)

6. THE LAY FOLLOWER

Mahānāma the Sakyan asked the Blessed One: “In what way, Bhante, is a lay follower practicing for his own welfare and for the welfare of others?”

(1) “When, Mahānāma, a lay follower is himself accomplished in faith and also encourages others to accomplish faith; (2) he is himself accomplished in virtuous behavior and also encourages others to accomplish virtuous behavior; (3) he is himself accomplished in generosity and also encourages others to accomplish generosity; (4) he himself wants to see monks and also encourages others to see monks; (5) he himself wants to hear the good Dhamma and also encourages others to hear the good Dhamma; (6) he himself retains in mind the teachings he has heard and also encourages others to retain the teachings in mind; (7) he himself examines the meaning of the teachings that have been retained in mind and also encourages others to examine their meaning; (8) he himself understands the meaning and the Dhamma and then practices in accordance with the Dhamma, and also encourages others to practice in accordance with the Dhamma. It is in this way, Mahānāma, that a lay follower is practicing for his own welfare and also for the welfare of others.”

(from AN 8:25, NDB 1155)

7. ONE OF GREAT WISDOM

A certain monk asked the Blessed One: “It is said, Bhante, ‘a wise person of great wisdom, a wise person of great wisdom.’ In what way is one a wise person of great wisdom?”

“Here, monk, a wise person of great wisdom does not intend for his own affliction, or for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both. Rather, when he plans, he plans for his own welfare, the welfare of others, the welfare of both, and the welfare of the whole world. It is in this way that one is a wise person of great wisdom.”

(from AN 4:186, NDB 555)


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Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn FULLBRIGHTDANG Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Trì Pháp Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Minh Pháp Tự Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn maithanh151 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Thích Nguyên Trọng Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Ngô Kim Ấn Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Nguyễn Sĩ Long Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Phan Huy Triều Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Vạn Phúc Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn lamtrinh Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Pháp Nhĩ Như Thị Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Huệ Trí 1975 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Thích Quảng Ba Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn NGUYỄN TRỌNG TÀI Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Không Xã Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Thich Giac Ngo Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Phan Chí Chính Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Hạnh Ngọc CPM Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Trần Thị Huyền Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Khanhnhat1996 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Diệu Âm Phúc Thành Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Pascal Bui Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Nguyễn Ngọc Bảo Phương Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Đặng hùng Sơn Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn tiengthanh Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn zeus7777 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Tánh Không 1965 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn thuhienmiku372004 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Quang-Tu Vu Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Trương Quang Quý Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Trần Vũ Cầu Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Trương Ngọc Trân Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Hải Bình Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Bá láp Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Chanhniem Forever Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Taman0811 Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Thich Tam Vien Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Duy Anh Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Tutaha Tran Rộng Mở Tâm Hồn Hoàng Sa ... ...

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